Timothy and Alfalfa Hay Blog https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog Learn more about the nutritional qualities of hay for large and small forage animals, including racehorses, dairy cattle & small forage animals. en-us Sat, 11 Jun 2022 20:38:21 GMT 2022-06-11T20:38:21Z en-us Timothy and Grass Hay Needs for Small Pets https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100268/timothy-and-grass-hay-requirements-of-small-animals <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100268/timothy-and-grass-hay-requirements-of-small-animals" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-573395390-jpg/images/guinea_pigs_eating_hay.jpg" alt="Timothy and Grass Hay Needs for Small Pets" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <h2 style="text-align: left;"><strong>Nutritional Needs of Small Herbivores</strong></h2> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Guinea pigs, chinchillas, and rabbits are small herbivores, or plant-eating animals, that are commonly kept as companion animals. They have been bred in captivity for years and their quiet nature, ease of handling, and relatively simple housing requirements make them ideal pets, especially for owners that do not have a lot of room for four-legged friends. Feeding these small mammals is an important part of their daily care and each species has specific nutritional needs.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Clean water must be accessible to all small pets at all times. A sipper water bottle is the best method to provide water because it is less likely to be contaminated with bedding, food, feces, and urine. Animals that are unfamiliar with sipper water bottles may require some training to use them properly. Water bottles and bowls should be emptied and filled with fresh water daily to encourage water intake and to prevent overgrowth of bacteria.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <h2 style="text-align: left;"><strong>Nutritional Needs of Small Herbivores</strong></h2> <p style="line-height: 1.5;"><img class="alignLeft" style="float: left; margin: 0px 15px 5px 0px;" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-573395390-jpg/images/guinea_pigs_eating_hay.jpg" alt="guinea pigs eating hay">Guinea pigs, chinchillas, and rabbits are small herbivores, or plant-eating animals, that are commonly kept as companion animals. They have been bred in captivity for years and their quiet nature, ease of handling, and relatively simple housing requirements make them ideal pets, especially for owners that do not have a lot of room for four-legged friends. Feeding these small mammals is an important part of their daily care and each species has specific nutritional needs.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Clean water must be accessible to all small pets at all times. A sipper water bottle is the best method to provide water because it is less likely to be contaminated with bedding, food, feces, and urine. Animals that are unfamiliar with sipper water bottles may require some training to use them properly. Water bottles and bowls should be emptied and filled with fresh water daily to encourage water intake and to prevent overgrowth of bacteria.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are all classified as hindgut fermenters. In hindgut fermenters, fiber from <a title="forages" href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/">forages</a> remains relatively intact as it passes through the stomach and intestine, but it is digested, or fermented, by symbiotic bacteria in the cecum and colon.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">All of these small mammals produce cecotrophs (sometimes called night feces), which are consumed as soon as they are expelled. Cecotrophs are formed in the colon and cecum and are made of soft, pellet-like fecal material. They are rich in nitrogen and contain microorganisms, amino acids, volatile fatty acids, and vitamins. These nutrients, which were previously unavailable in the forage, are neatly packaged in the cecotrophs and are digested in the stomach and absorbed in the small intestine. Proper and efficient formation of cecotrophs requires a high-fiber diet.</p> <h3 style="line-height: 1.5;">What should rabbits eat?</h3> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Mature rabbits should be fed a commercial pelleted feed designed for rabbits and have unlimited access to <a title="grass hay" href="https://andy.pet/collections/hay">grass hay</a>. In general, alfalfa hay should not be fed to adult rabbits because it contains too much protein and calcium and overconsumption may result in kidney damage. Rabbits should also be fed a source of fresh, dark, tough, and leafy greens. Gradually introduce hay if rabbits have only been eating pellets up to this point. Once rabbits are eating hay for several weeks, slowly add greens to the diet. Aim to provide three different types of leafy greens each day to provide a variety of nutrients.</p> <h3 style="line-height: 1.5;">What should guinea pigs eat?</h3> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Guinea pigs require diets that are similar to rabbits. They should be fed plenty of <a title="grass hay" href="https://andy.pet/collections/hay">grass hay</a> that does not contain too many calories. Guinea pigs should also be fed a limited amount of commercial pellets designed for guinea pigs. Avoid unlimited access to pellets as guinea pigs may become obese. Unlike many other animals, guinea pigs require a dietary source of vitamin C so they don’t get scurvy. Don’t rely solely upon pellets for vitamin C as the vitamin is not stable for extended periods of time, especially if the pellets are exposed to sunlight or high temperatures. Make sure to include some dark, leafy greens, which are rich in vitamin C.</p> <h3 style="line-height: 1.5;">What should chinchillas eat?</h3> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Nutritional needs of chinchillas haven’t been studied as extensively as needs of rabbits and guinea pigs. Current recommendations state that chinchillas should be fed commercial chinchilla pellets and provided with free-choice access to <a title="high-quality grass hay" href="https://andy.pet/collections/hay">high-quality grass hay</a>. A pellet-only diet will not provide a chinchilla enough roughage and may predispose the chinchilla to diarrhea. Chinchillas would also do well with some added leafy greens, but do not require as much as rabbits.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Feeding small herbivores like rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas is not too difficult. Remember that they need an unlimited supply of high-quality grass hay to provide adequate roughage for gastrointestinal health. Commercial pellets designed to meet nutritional needs for a particular species should also be provided. If nutritional needs are met, these small mammals should be healthy and provide many years of companionship.</p> <h2 style="line-height: 1.5; font-weight: bold;"><span style="color: #cf142b;">Small Pet Hay: Andy by Anderson Hay</span></h2> <p style="line-height: 1.5;">Anderson Hay &amp; Grain launched a new division that focuses on smaller boxes of our premium hay for that's harvested, packaged and delivered to your door, just for your small pet. Please visit Andy by Anderson Hay at <a href="https://andy.pet/">https://andy.pet/</a> for all your small pet needs.</p> <h4 style="line-height: 1.5; font-size: 12px;"><span style="color: #444444;"><strong>References</strong></span></h4> <p style="line-height: 1.5; font-size: 12px;">Clauss, M. 2012. Clinical technique: Feeding hay to rabbits and rodents. J. Exotic Pet Med. 21:80-86.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5; font-size: 12px;">Donnelly, T.M. and C.J. Brown. 2004. Guinea pig and chinchilla care and husbandry. Vet. Clin.Exot. Anim. 7:351-373.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.5; font-size: 12px;">Irlbec, N.A. 2001. How to feed the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E. Suppl.):343-346.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F100268%2Ftimothy-and-grass-hay-requirements-of-small-animals&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Sat, 11 Jun 2022 20:29:06 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100268/timothy-and-grass-hay-requirements-of-small-animals 2022-06-11T20:29:06Z Nikki Pollock Which Cutting of Timothy Hay is Better for Horses? https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99949/timothy-hay-what-cutting-is-better-for-horses <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99949/timothy-hay-what-cutting-is-better-for-horses" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-536908250-png/images/timothy_hay.png" alt="Which Cutting of Timothy Hay is Better for Horses?" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="Timothy hay">Timothy hay</a> is an excellent source of&nbsp;</span>fiber and roughage to include in your horse's diet. As a horse owner, you'll have to decide if you should purchase first or second cutting of Timothy hay. You may have heard that the nutritional quality of first cutting Timothy hay is inferior to the second cutting. While this may be true in some cases, this really depends on farming practices, such as if first-cutting hay is harvested from a weed-free field at an early stage of growth before the stem becomes larger and coarser.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="Timothy hay">Timothy hay</a> is an excellent source of&nbsp;<img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-536908250-png/images/timothy_hay.png" alt="Kittitas Valley Timothy Hay" class="alignRight" style="float: right;"></span>fiber and roughage to include in your horse's diet. As a horse owner, you'll have to decide if you should purchase first or second cutting of Timothy hay. You may have heard that the nutritional quality of first cutting Timothy hay is inferior to the second cutting. While this may be true in some cases, this really depends on farming practices, such as if first-cutting hay is harvested from a weed-free field at an early stage of growth before the stem becomes larger and coarser.</p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;">While <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/" title="timothy hay">Timothy hay</a> quality is influenced by many factors, including plant variety, weather conditions during growth and harvest, and day length, it is the stage of plant maturity that really dictates the nutritional quality of the hay. First or second cutting doesn’t truly provide much information about plant maturity or overall quality.</p> <h2 class="Default" style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;"><span style="color: #444444;">How Timothy Plant Maturity Affects Quality</span></h2> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;">Timothy plant maturity can be visually determined by the number of seed heads present. Timothy grass in the vegetative stage will not have visible seed heads. But, how does plant maturity affect quality? As Timothy matures, the plants pass from the vegetative stage when they are producing leaves, to reproductive stages where the plants use energy stores to begin producing seeds instead of leaves. As a result, the stem-to-leaf ratio increases and nutritive quality decreases. During this time, the concentrations of structural components in the stem, including hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, are increasing, while crude protein levels are decreasing.</p> <h2 class="Default" style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #444444;">Nutritional Value: Guaranteed Analysis</span></h2> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;">The best way to know the nutritional quality of Timothy hay is to take a representative sample from the hay lot and send it to a laboratory for a guaranteed analysis. Analyses of Timothy hay harvested at several stages of maturity are shown in Figure 1.</p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-533080566-png/images/effect_of_harvest_stage_on_timothy_hay_nutritional_composition.png?width=655&amp;height=287&amp;name=effect_of_harvest_stage_on_timothy_hay_nutritional_composition.png" alt="Effect of harvest stage on timothy hay nutritional composition" width="655" height="287" class="alignLeft"></p> <h2 class="Default" style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #666666;">Understanding Harvest Stages on Nutritional Value</span></h2> <h3 class="Default" style="text-align: left;">Joint Stage vs. Full Head Stage</h3> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;">When Timothy is cut at the joint stage, the crude protein content is about 11%, but it is almost 30% lower when Timothy is harvested at the full-head stage. Fiber content, which is reported as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), increases as the hay matures. Neutral detergent fiber is a measurement of cell wall content (hemicellulose + cellulose + lignin) and is an indirect measure of how readily a forage will be consumed. In general, forage intake decreases as NDF increases.</p> <h3 class="Default" style="text-align: left;">Immature Timothy Hay</h3> <p class="Default" style="text-align: left;">Immature Timothy hay (harvested at joint and pre-bloom stages) has lower levels of ADF than hay harvested at the full-head stage. Acid detergent fiber is a measurement of cellulose and lignin. Hay digestibility decreases as ADF increases. Bacteria in the horse’s hindgut can partially digest hemicellulose and cellulose, but they cannot digest lignin. For this reason, forage dry matter digestibility decreases three to four percent with every one percent increase in lignin.</p> <p class="Default">Timothy hay is worth more to the horse owner when it is harvested at an immature stage of growth. It will have higher levels of crude protein and lower amounts of both NDF and ADF. The nutritional quality of Timothy hay is not related to a particular cutting, but rather to the stage of maturity of the plant when it was cut. Absence of seed heads indicate that Timothy hay is immature, but analysis by a laboratory is the only way to know the actual nutritional quality of the hay.&nbsp;</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F99949%2Ftimothy-hay-what-cutting-is-better-for-horses&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Race Horse Hay Timothy Horse Health Horse Nutrition Tue, 01 Mar 2022 20:26:27 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99949/timothy-hay-what-cutting-is-better-for-horses 2022-03-01T20:26:27Z Nikki Pollock Forage Nutrition 101: How Phosphorus Impacts Hay Quality https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Hay Quality for Horses &amp; Livestock</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">In the agriculture industry, the quality of forage for horses, cows and livestock is measured by the levels of energy, fiber, and other essential nutrients they provide. Growing environment, soil conditions, and harvesting technique all impact forage quality. The physical attributes of forages (smell, color, leafiness) are not as specific indicators of quality as chemical analysis.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">One factor to consider when looking at you forage options is the concentration of phosphorus (P) as different levels affect digestion and animal productivity. </span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Hay Quality for Horses &amp; Livestock</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">In the agriculture industry, the quality of forage for horses, cows and livestock is measured by the levels of energy, fiber, and other essential nutrients they provide. Growing environment, soil conditions, and harvesting technique all impact forage quality. The physical attributes of forages (smell, color, leafiness) are not as specific indicators of quality as chemical analysis.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">One factor to consider when looking at you forage options is the concentration of phosphorus (P) as different levels affect digestion and animal productivity. </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Find out why you should assess levels and what percentages you’ll find in common types of forages.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">What is phosphorus in forages?</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Phosphorus in forages is processed during photosynthesis to convert light energy into chemical energy. This energy is absorbed by the plant for growth and development. Phosphorus is especially critical during a plant’s establishment phase because of its impact on root growth. Phosphorus levels impact the digestibility of dry matter, as a certain minimum level is essential for the transfer of carbohydrates.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Phosphorus is also a key factor in the establishment of forage legumes, such as Alfalfa, which impacts dry-matter yields in forages.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Why is phosphorus important?</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Phosphorus is the key nutrient in getting a pasture stand established. Soil should be tested to determine nutrient levels (e.g., phosphorus, potassium, nitrate) prior to broadcasting.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">In forages, the primary task of phosphorus is transforming protein, fat, and carbohydrates into energy. It also:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Strengthens bones and teeth</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Delivers oxygen to the body’s systems</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Helps maintain pH in the body</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Develops connective tissues</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Produces hormones</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">A shortage of phosphorus in the body can be serious as it can lead to reduced appetite, weight loss, skeletal weaknesses, and decreased milk production in lactating livestock. A deficiency of phosphorus is the most economically critical of all the mineral deficiencies that can impact livestock.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: normal;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">What percentage of phosphorus is found in different types of forages?</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">The level of phosphorus in various forages is important as it relates to the ratio of calcium, alongside the presence of Vitamin D. Vitamin D<sub>3</sub> is essential for the utilization of calcium, as deficiencies in the vitamin will change the amount of calcium available, thus offsetting the phosphorus ratio. The recommended ratios of calcium to phosphorus are as follows:</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Ca_P_Ratios.png?width=460&amp;name=Ca_P_Ratios.png" alt="hay quality for horses" title="Ca_P_Ratios.png" width="460" style="width: 460px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>How do you maintain phosphorus levels in forages?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Phosphorus accumulates quickly in soil due to repeated fertilizer treatments. While those forages that are regularly harvested maintain proper levels, producers that over-apply liters and manures to stimulate growth run into problems.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">If manure is applied to soil, it should be dragged with a harrow to distribute nutrients. If manure is not applied, soil should be tested to determine nutrient levels (e.g., phosphorus, potassium, nitrate) prior to broadcasting.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">When choosing the best forage for your horse's nutrition, you should evaluate the phosphorus levels in your forage. The levels of<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber"> acid detergent or neutral detergent fibers</a>, <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-nitrates">nitrates</a>, and <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein">crude protein</a> are other indications of high standards in forage products.</span><a href="http://www.guinealynx.info/hay_ratios_calcium.html"></a></p> <h3 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">More Reading:</span></h3> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Learn more about <a href="http://www.ipni.net/publication/bettercrops.nsf/0/26DA4CB5683B37F9852579800082018E/$FILE/Better%20Crops%201999-1%20p32.pdf">Phosphorus in Animal Nutrition</a> in this article from Better Crops.</span></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fforage-nutrition-101-phosphorus&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Tue, 02 Nov 2021 20:00:00 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus 2021-11-02T20:00:00Z Where Does Timothy Hay Grow? https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/timothy-hay-growing-regions <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/timothy-hay-growing-regions" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/growing%20regions-01.png" alt="1_1" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay">Timothy hay (phleum pratense)</a> also known as meadow cat's-tail, is a perennial grass hay used as feed for many animals from small pets to <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner">Triple Crown-winning racehorses</a>. Native to much of Europe, an American colonial farmer is credited with being the first to cultivate the grass in North America in 1720. By 1747, the grass first farmed by Timothy Hanson was known as “timothy” and has since earned a reputation for being the finest forage produced in the world.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><span style="color: #cf142b; font-weight: bold;">Ideal Climate Conditions for Timothy Hay</span></p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">Growing high quality Timothy hay requires a number of very specific climate conditions. Most regions known for producing this cool-season grass grow are at high altitudes, have harsh winters, and summers with long warm days and cool nights.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay">Timothy hay (phleum pratense)</a> also known as meadow cat's-tail, is a perennial grass hay used as feed for many animals from small pets to <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner">Triple Crown-winning racehorses</a>. Native to much of Europe, an American colonial farmer is credited with being the first to cultivate the grass in North America in 1720. By 1747, the grass first farmed by Timothy Hanson was known as “timothy” and has since earned a reputation for being the finest forage produced in the world.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><span style="color: #cf142b; font-weight: bold;">Ideal Climate Conditions for Timothy Hay</span></p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">Growing high quality Timothy hay requires a number of very specific climate conditions. Most regions known for producing this cool-season grass grow are at high altitudes, have harsh winters, and summers with long warm days and cool nights.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Cold winters kill off weeds and pests that cannot survive low temperatures, while the hardiness of Timothy hay allows the root system to last through spring. Like other cool-season grasses, Timothy grows best in the spring. Heat and drought during summer months can cause growth to slow or may even cause the grass to go into dormancy until a normal rain cycle resumes due to a shallow, fibrous root system. Regions well-suited for growing Timothy have water readily available for germination and growth and stands should be irrigated frequently to maintain water levels in the shallow root zones during growth.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">As is the case for many types of sun-cured forage, wind can also be a key factor in drying time while hay is in wind-rows after cutting. Extended drying time puts forage at risk for nutrition and color loss, which is especially important in the export market. Light winds can help to decrease drying time, limiting exposure in the windrow to uncontrollable elements like rain, sun bleach, and humidity.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">The combination of these conditions is found in only a few regions around the world, most commonly near major mountain ranges. The altitude brings with it low winter temperatures, warm summer days, and mountain/valley breezes to assist in drying. Below are growing regions known in North America for producing the highest quality Timothy hay:</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/growing%20regions-01.png?width=417&amp;name=growing%20regions-01.png" alt="Timothy Hay Growing Regions" width="417" style="width: 417px; display: block; margin: 10px auto;"></p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">Lethbridge, AB, CA</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Lethbridge is the largest city in southern Alberta, and Alberta’s fourth largest city by population. Situated at the base of the Canadian Rockies, Lethbridge has a perfect climate for growing high quality Timothy Hay.</p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">Ellensburg, WA, USA</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Ellensburg is where the hay exporting industry got its start, and Timothy hay has a pillar of the Ellensburg economy since the 1970’s. This city in the Kittitas Valley of Washington State is home to several hay exporters that ship forage products around the world, including Anderson Hay &amp; Grain.</p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">McArthur, CA</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">In the shadows of beautiful Mt. Shasta, McArthur is a small agricultural community in northern California. Much of the Timothy Hay grown in this area is sold domestically, and any hay that is exported typically ships from the Port of Seattle. &nbsp;</p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">Eureka, NV</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">The small farming community of Eureka is located in central Nevada, first settled in 1864. Started as a mining community, it is now known around the world for its high quality Timothy hay and a key area vital to supplying the California horse market.</p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">Winnemucca, NV</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Adjacent to Eureka sits Humboldt County, home of Winnemucca. Warm days and cool nights make Winnemucca and its semi-arid environment well suited for producing grass hay like Timothy.</p> <h3><span style="color: #cf142b;">Madras, OR</span></h3> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Much of the hay produced in this city in Central Oregon is used by the high end horse market. Along with supplying high quality forage to key markets, important research on grass hay is conducted in this region by Oregon State University.</p> <p style="line-height: 1.25;">Anderson Hay is proud to supply the world with award-winning Timothy Hay grown in the Kittitas Valley. For more information on our products, check out our <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">product pages</a> or <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/contact-anderson-hay">contact us</a>!&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Ftimothy-hay-growing-regions&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Timothy Hay Timothy Etymology Timothy Hay Thu, 15 Jul 2021 22:56:29 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/timothy-hay-growing-regions 2021-07-15T22:56:29Z Forage Nutrition 101: Acid Detergent Fiber & Neutral Detergent Fiber https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/nutrition_series_featured_image-01.png" alt="Forage Nutrition 101: Acid Detergent Fiber &amp; Neutral Detergent Fiber" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Success in the agriculture industry starts with the quality of your forages. They need to deliver optimal levels of protein, minerals, fiber, and other essentials to establish the most accurate measurement of feed quality: animal productivity. Many factors weigh into whether forages are good, better or best – such as <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/the-north-american-monsoon">climate</a>, soil conditions, and the harvesting process. Consider all of these aspects when choosing a supplier to ensure that you receive the highest quality forage possible.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Success in the agriculture industry starts with the quality of your forages. They need to deliver optimal levels of protein, minerals, fiber, and other essentials to establish the most accurate measurement of feed quality: animal productivity. Many factors weigh into whether forages are good, better or best – such as <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/the-north-american-monsoon">climate</a>, soil conditions, and the harvesting process. Consider all of these aspects when choosing a supplier to ensure that you receive the highest quality forage possible.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">One measure of quality in forages is the percentages of Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) they contain. The levels of ADF and NDF are critical because they impact animal productivity and digestion. This primer on Acid Detergent Fiber &amp; Neutral Detergent Fiber will help you understand the importance of these components and how percentages vary depending on maturity of the plant.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>What are ADF and NDF in forages?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">ADF is a measure of the plant components in forages that are the least digestible by livestock, including cellulose and lignin. ADF increases digestibility decreases, so forages with high ADF concentrations are typically lower in energy.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">A plant’s structural components are the source of NDF, specifically the cell walls. NDF relates to free-choice by livestock because it provides low-calorie filler. You generally want to choose forages with low NDF percentages because these levels increase as forages mature.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>How are ADF and NDF measured?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">These percentages are measured in a laboratory setting. The ADF percentage is measured by boiling forage in an acid detergent solution, then measuring the residue remaining. In the same way, NDF is measured by boiling the forage in a neutral detergent solution, then measuring the insoluble residue.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Why are ADF and NDF important?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Together, ADF and NDF factor into the crude fiber of forages, which is the measure of total fiber content. It’s helpful to know ADF and NDF percentages because they can accurately predict forage intake as it relates to bulk; in other words, how much an animal will eat before its stomach is full and it stops eating. These figures are also key for measuring energy levels and animal performance.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>What percentages of ADF and NDF are found in different types of forages?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">The percentages of ADF and NDF in Alfalfa depend upon the cutting:</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/ADF_Alfalfa.png?width=460&amp;name=ADF_Alfalfa.png" alt="alfalfa adf forage nutrition" title="ADF_Alfalfa.png" width="460" style="width: 460px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">ADF and NDF in grasses (such as Timothy) also vary by age:</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Grass_ADF-NDF_-1.png?width=460&amp;name=Grass_ADF-NDF_-1.png" alt="grass adf forage nutrition" title="Grass_ADF-NDF_-1.png" width="460" style="width: 460px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><br><br></span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Forage Nutrition 101: Additional Resources</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">There are factors in addition to ADF and NDF when reviewing forage quality. Read more of the blogs in our Forage Nutrition 101 blog series to learn more:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein">Crude Protein</a><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus"></a></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus">Phosphorus</a></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-nitrates">Nitrates</a></span><span style="font-size: 14px;"></span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">The levels of these components may vary considerably in products sourced from different growers and locations To be sure you’re obtaining high-quality forages, work with a supplier that has an established reputation in the agriculture industry.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Visit our <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">products page </a>to find the forage that is right for you and your livestock nutrition needs!&nbsp;</span></p> <br> <p style="font-size: 12px;"><em>Sources:</em></p> <p style="font-size: 12px;"><a href="http://www.foragetesting.org/files/InterpretingFQReport.pdf">http://www.foragetesting.org/files/InterpretingFQReport.pdf<br></a><a href="http://extension.psu.edu/animals/camelids/nutrition/what-is-forage-quality-and-how-does-it-effect-a-feeding-program">http://extension.psu.edu/animals/camelids/nutrition/what-is-forage-quality-and-how-does-it-effect-a-feeding-program</a><a href="http://extension.psu.edu/animals/camelids/nutrition/what-is-forage-quality-and-how-does-it-effect-a-feeding-program"><br></a><a href="http://www.foragelab.com/Media/understanding_Your_CVAS_Forage.pdf">http://www.foragelab.com/Media/understanding_Your_CVAS_Forage.pdf</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fforage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Timothy Horse Nutrition Thu, 01 Jul 2021 16:30:00 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber 2021-07-01T16:30:00Z Flakes of hay: How much to feed your horse? https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/80914/flakes-of-hay-how-much-to-feed-your-horse <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/80914/flakes-of-hay-how-much-to-feed-your-horse" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-16009443-jpg/images/timothy_hay_for_horses_by_anderson_hay.jpg" alt="Flakes of hay: How much to feed your horse?" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <h2 style="float: undefined;">How Do Horses Digestion Systems Work?</h2> <p style="float: undefined;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="Horses">Horses</a> are non-ruminant herbivores, meaning they have a single stomach digestive system, and can eat and utilize roughages much like cattle or sheep.&nbsp; However, unlike cattle, horses have stomachs that function similarly to human stomachs, where feed particles are mixed with pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins, and hydrochloric acid, which breaks down solid particles.&nbsp; But, a horse stomach is quite small in comparison to the stomachs of other livestock animals and can only contain about 10% of the total capacity of the digestive system.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <h2 style="float: undefined;">How Do Horses Digestion Systems Work?</h2> <p style="float: undefined;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="Horses">Horses</a> are non-ruminant herbivores, meaning they have a single stomach digestive system, and can eat and <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-16009443-jpg/images/timothy_hay_for_horses_by_anderson_hay.jpg" alt="Horses eating hay" class="alignRight" style="float: right;">utilize roughages much like cattle or sheep.&nbsp; However, unlike cattle, horses have stomachs that function similarly to human stomachs, where feed particles are mixed with pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins, and hydrochloric acid, which breaks down solid particles.&nbsp; But, a horse stomach is quite small in comparison to the stomachs of other livestock animals and can only contain about 10% of the total capacity of the digestive system.&nbsp;</p> <p style="float: undefined;">Because of the limited capacity of its stomach, a horse should be fed small amounts of feed often.&nbsp; Unfortunately, domesticated horses are fed once or twice a day and if stabled, spend much of the day not eating.&nbsp; Because hydrochloric acid is produced continuously in the horse stomach, it can accumulate in an empty stomach, irritate the stomach lining, and eventually cause ulcers.&nbsp;</p> <p>After feed leaves the stomach, it passes into the small intestine where much of the soluble carbohydrates, or sugars, and protein from grain are digested and absorbed.&nbsp; From there, feed passes to the large intestine, which is made up of the cecum and large colon.&nbsp; The cecum is a blind sac that is essentially a 10-gallon fermentation vat containing millions of microorganisms that break down the fibrous components of roughages.&nbsp; Microbial breakdown of fibrous particles continues in the large colon where water is also absorbed and fecal balls are formed and passed through the rectum.&nbsp;</p> <p>Passage rate through the small intestine to the large intestine is quite rapid and if a large amount of grain, which contains high levels of soluble sugars, is ingested, the capacity of the small intestine is quickly overwhelmed.&nbsp; When high levels of soluble carbohydrates reach the large intestine, they are rapidly fermented, resulting in overproduction of gas and lactic acid, which can lead to colic and laminitis, respectively.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <h2>How Much and How Often Horses Should Eat</h2> <p style="float: undefined;">So, in order to maximize digestive efficiency and prevent digestive upset a horse should be fed several small meals throughout the day.&nbsp; But, do you know how much your horse is supposed to eat every day?&nbsp; The answer to this question depends on the physiological status of the animal (if it is growing, pregnant, or lactating) and on the work level of the horse.&nbsp;</p> <p style="float: undefined;">However, let’s consider the typical pleasure horse that works 1 – 3 hours a week.&nbsp; The daily <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="dry matter intake">dry matter intake</a> of an adult horse performing light work should be about 1.8% of its body weight each day. &nbsp;At least 65% of this amount should be <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="forage">forage</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p style="float: undefined;">In other words, a 1,000 lb horse should be fed 18 pounds of dry matter each day. Dry matter (DM) is the amount of feed that does not contain moisture; the DM content of <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/" title="hay">hay</a> is considerably higher than fresh grass.&nbsp; Note: the hay analysis should show the DM content of your forage. &nbsp;If you are feeding 100% hay and your hay contains 90% DM (or 10% moisture), your 1,000 lb horse should be fed 20 pounds of hay (18 lb DM/0.9) straight from the bale each day.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="float: undefined;">How to Properly Measure Hay</h2> <p style="float: undefined;">Weighing hay is the most effective way to measure the correct amount. However, more than 85% of horse owners who completed a survey published in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (1) reportedly measured the amount of hay fed by flakes. Flakes of hay vary widely in weight, depending on forage type, size and tightness of bales; therefore, measuring hay by this method can result in misrepresentation of forage amount.&nbsp; The same can be said for measuring concentrates.&nbsp; A coffee can or a scoop of grain is an arbitrary amount.&nbsp; <span style="font-weight: bold;">A scale with a capacity of at least 10 pounds is a must in all horse barns!</span>&nbsp; You can certainly measure feed quantities by flakes of hay or coffee cans of grain after you determine how much each of those units actually weighs.</p> <p>In summary, in order to maximize feed utilization efficiency and avoid digestive upsets, a horse should be fed an accurately weighed amount of feed based on its size, physiological status and work load.&nbsp; Ideally, this amount should be fed in small meals at frequent intervals throughout the day.</p> <p>What method do you use to monitor your horse's daily intake? Have you found a good hay scale? Tell us about it in the comments section!<br><br></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>References</strong></span></p> <p style="font-size: 12px;">Description of equine digestive system was adapted in large part from:<br>Parker, R. &nbsp;2003.&nbsp; Equine Science, 2<sup>nd</sup> Edition.&nbsp; Delmar Learning, Clifton Park, NY.</p> <p style="font-size: 12px;"><em>(1)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Hoffman, C.J., L.R. Costa, and L.M. Freeman.&nbsp; 2009.&nbsp; Survey of feeding practices, supplement use, and knowledge of equine nutrition among a subpopulation of horse owners in New England.&nbsp; J. Equine Vet. Sci.&nbsp; 29:719-726.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F80914%2Fflakes-of-hay-how-much-to-feed-your-horse&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Race Horse Hay Timothy Thu, 10 Jun 2021 23:18:26 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/80914/flakes-of-hay-how-much-to-feed-your-horse 2021-06-10T23:18:26Z Nikki Pollock What is Timothy Hay? https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/what-is-timothy-hay <p style="font-size: 14px;">Not all hay is created equal. In fact, it varies greatly according to plant type, quality, growing region, and intended use. Timothy hay is more than just forage and has specific qualities that make it a premium feed option for a variety of feed programs.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold; font-size: 16px;">Types of Hay for Livestock</h2> <span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Montserrat, sans-serif;">The two most popular types of hay used as feed for livestock are legumes and grass hay. </span><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay">Alfalfa hay</a><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Montserrat, sans-serif;"> is the most well-known and widely fed legume (called “lucerne” in many parts of the world), and clovers are</span></span> <p style="font-size: 14px;">Not all hay is created equal. In fact, it varies greatly according to plant type, quality, growing region, and intended use. Timothy hay is more than just forage and has specific qualities that make it a premium feed option for a variety of feed programs.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold; font-size: 16px;">Types of Hay for Livestock</h2> <span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Montserrat, sans-serif;">The two most popular types of hay used as feed for livestock are legumes and grass hay. </span><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay">Alfalfa hay</a><span style="color: #333333; font-family: Montserrat, sans-serif;"> is the most well-known and widely fed legume (called “lucerne” in many parts of the world), and clovers are</span></span> <span style="color: #333333; font-family: Montserrat, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">another type of legume that are also commonly incorporated in many feed programs. Alfalfa’s high protein content makes it ideal for milk-producing livestock and animals with high energy requirements.</span></span> <div> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay">Timothy hay</a>, on the other hand, is a grass hay. Grass hay differs from legumes in that it is composed of</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">&nbsp;long, hollow stems that grow up to 60 inches tall with leaves that can grow up to 17 inches. The heads (inflorescence) of timothy hay are usually 3-6 inches long and are densely packed with spikelets that flower when mature.</span><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/timothy-hay.jpg?width=3264&amp;name=timothy-hay.jpg" alt="timothy hay" width="3264" style="width: 3264px;"></p> <h2 style="font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold;">Growing Conditions for Timothy Hay</h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">There are very <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/timothy-hay-growing-regions">specific climate requirements</a> necessary to grow high quality Timothy that will be baled and used as animal feed. It is a cool-season grass that grows well with a cool spring and withstands harsh winters, but does not tolerate drought and will decline or die without adequate irrigation. Most growing regions that are well known for producing Timothy hay are found at the base of a major mountain range, where winds coming off the mountains dry cut hay before sun bleach sets in.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Timothy hay is used most often as cattle and horse feed. Its low protein, high fiber, and high energy content make it easily digestible. Due to its low protein levels, Timothy hay can be fed regularly to satisfy appetite without excess calories and protein, and in some cases provides enough protein for less active and stabled horses. For livestock with higher protein requirements, it is often part of a comprehensive feed program including alfalfa or another legume.</span></p> <h2 style="font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold;">What Animals Eat Timothy Hay?</h2> <p style="font-size: 14px;">Around the world, many types of livestock utilize Timothy as part of their feed regimen including horses, cattle, goats, camels, and sheep. &nbsp;Small animals also benefit from the high fiber levels of timothy hay. It is widely used as feed for rabbits, chinchillas, degus, and gerbils fed in unlimited quantities and is very important for their digestive health.</p> <p style="font-size: 14px;">If you're interested in learning more about purchasing our Timothy Hay, please fill out our <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/product-inquiries-form?hsCtaTracking=618b8daf-98da-4c2d-b654-b5eea8d0dd57%7Ca83abfcd-fbfa-4659-b801-50c0d2a50945">Product Inquiry form</a>.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fwhat-is-timothy-hay&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Timothy Hay Etymology Timothy Hay Wed, 02 Jun 2021 23:26:00 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/what-is-timothy-hay 2021-06-02T23:26:00Z Forage Nutrition 101: Crude Protein https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/nutrition_series_featured_image-01.png" alt="Forage Nutrition 101: Crude Protein" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">High-quality forages are essential for livestock, as&nbsp;<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">premium products</a> provide the optimal amounts of energy, protein, minerals, fiber and other essential nutrients. Forage quality relies upon many factors, including:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Climate</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Soil fertility</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Harvesting technique</span></li> </ul> <span style="font-size: 14px;"></span> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Production of premium forages is extremely complex. One of the top and most widely recognized measures of forage quality is the amount of crude protein it contains. Crude protein has a large impact on animal digestive health and productivity. Read on for more information on crude protein, why it’s important and what percentages are ideal in different types of forages.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">High-quality forages are essential for livestock, as&nbsp;<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">premium products</a> provide the optimal amounts of energy, protein, minerals, fiber and other essential nutrients. Forage quality relies upon many factors, including:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Climate</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Soil fertility</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Harvesting technique</span></li> </ul> <span style="font-size: 14px;"></span> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Production of premium forages is extremely complex. One of the top and most widely recognized measures of forage quality is the amount of crude protein it contains. Crude protein has a large impact on animal digestive health and productivity. Read on for more information on crude protein, why it’s important and what percentages are ideal in different types of forages.<span style="font-size: 14px;"></span></span></p> <h2 style="font-size: 14px;">&nbsp;<strong>What is crude protein in forages?</strong></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Protein itself is an essential element of livestock nutrition, and there are many sources from which it can be derived. However, the term “crude protein” does not refer to or measure how much protein is present in forages. So what exactly is crude protein? <em><span style="font-weight: bold;">Crude protein is a chemical analysis of the forage that calculates the amount of nitrogen, which is the building block for amino acids that form proteins.</span></em> This is then used to estimate the amount of true protein and non-protein nitrogen. </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">To calculate crude protein, total nitrogen is determined, then multiplied by 6.25 (there is 1 part N for every 6.25 parts protein in most forages). This number reflects a forage’s potential to provide protein that certain livestock require.</span></p> <h2><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Why is crude protein important?</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Proper crude protein levels are essential in forages for the many types of livestock that rely on them for nutrition. When the percentage of crude protein is low, the bacteria responsible for digestion cannot sustain adequate levels to process forage. Ultimately, the animal’s intake and digestibility are reduced. It is important to note that although CP is important and a commonly used measure of feed quality, it should not be used to estimate energy value. This is best represented by TDN, which we will cover in depth as we continue with the Forage Nutrition Series.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">What percentage of crude protein is found in different types of forages?</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">A look at the levels of crude protein in forage varieties demonstrates how CP diminishes as it matures:</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/crude_protein_in_various_forages.png?width=444&amp;name=crude_protein_in_various_forages.png" alt="crude protein in forage hay" title="crude_protein_in_various_forages.png" width="444" style="width: 444px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">For Alfalfa, crude protein percentages depend on four different stages of maturity:</span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/CP_table_2.png?width=446&amp;name=CP_table_2.png" alt="crude protein in alfalfa" title="CP_table_2.png" width="446" style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 446px;"></span></p> <h2><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>How is this percentage increased?</strong></span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Forages that don’t contain proper amounts of crude protein will require supplementation by protein nutrients in order to return bacteria levels to a sustainable level. Forages that are effective as supplements to primary feed include soybean meal, cottonseed meal and corn gluten feed. However, considering the cost of protein supplements, the smart financial choice is to make purchasing decisions based upon crude protein in the forage – eliminating the need for supplements.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Climate &amp; harvest effects on crude protein</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Crude protein concentration does vary by season and maturity. Cooler environments will produce forages with higher levels of CP as compared to warmer months. Crude protein also decreases as the forage ages and fiber content increases, and in excessively rainy conditions where nitrogen is leached out after the forage has been cut. There are many fertilizer options available to increase the nitrogen available during growing.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">There’s a wide array of factors that impact forage quality, and crude protein is just one measurement to consider. The percentages of phosphorus, acid or neutral detergent fibers, and nitrates are other features that you should weigh when choosing high-quality forages. In the end, premium forage products are the result of operational expertise and dedication to professionalism.</span></p> <h2 style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Forage Nutrition 101: Additional Resources</span></h2> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">There are factors in addition to ADF and NDF when reviewing forage quality. Read more of the blogs in our Forage Nutrition 101 blog series to learn more:</span></p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Acid Detergent Fiber &amp; Neutral Detergent Fiber</span></a></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus">Phosphorus</a></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-nitrates">Nitrates</a></span></li> </ul> <p style="font-size: 14px;">Visit our <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">products page </a>to find the forage that is right for you and your livestock nutrition needs!&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">&nbsp;</span></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fnutrition-101-crude-protein&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Horse Nutrition Tue, 11 May 2021 16:52:34 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein 2021-05-11T16:52:34Z Justify Becomes the 13th Triple Crown Winner https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/Justify%20BS%202018.jpg" alt="Justify BS 2018" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>Saturday was a historic day as Justify became the 13<sup>th</sup> Triple Crown winner with his victory in the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, NY. Conditions were perfect and the track was fast on Saturday as Justify became the second Bob Baffert-trained triple crown winner since American Pharoah ended the 37-year drought in 2015.</p> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Justify%20BS%202018.jpg?width=352&amp;name=Justify%20BS%202018.jpg" alt="Justify BS 2018" width="352" style="width: 352px; float: right; margin: 0px 10px 10px 7px;"> <p>Saturday was a historic day as Justify became the 13<sup>th</sup> Triple Crown winner with his victory in the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, NY. Conditions were perfect and the track was fast on Saturday as Justify became the second Bob Baffert-trained triple crown winner since American Pharoah ended the 37-year drought in 2015.</p> <p>The track at Belmont is known for being more difficult than the Kentucky Derby and Preakness, with its additional length and deeper, softer sand. Justify passed the post in 2:28.18, with Gronkowski 1 ¾ lengths behind and Hofburg coming in third at 3 ½ lengths behind.</p> <table style="height: 451px;" width="579"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 59px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Place</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Horse</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Trainer</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Jockey</span></strong></h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Justify</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bob Baffert</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mike Smith</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Gronkowski</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Chad Brown</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Jose Ortiz</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Hofburg</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">William Mott</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Irad Ortiz</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Vino Rosso</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Todd Pletcher</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">John Velazquez</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">5</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tenfold</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Steve Asmussen</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ricardo Santana Jr.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bravazo</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">D. Wayne Lukas</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Luis Saez</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Free Drop Billy</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dale Romans</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Robby Albarado</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Restoring Hope</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bob Baffert</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Florent Geroux</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Blended Citizen</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Doug O'Neil</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Kyle Frey</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">10</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Noble Indy</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Todd Pletcher</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Javier Castellano</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Anderson Hay is proud to provide high quality forage for Justify as he makes athletic history.&nbsp;</p> <p>If you missed the race, catch it below!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <iframe style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; display: block;" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/L4pkD78oKSo?rel=0" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fjustify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Race Horse Hay Horse Nutrition News Tue, 12 Jun 2018 15:54:22 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-becomes-the-13th-triple-crown-winner 2018-06-12T15:54:22Z Justify Wins the 2018 Preakness Stakes https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-wins-the-2018-preakness-stakes <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-wins-the-2018-preakness-stakes" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/Justify%20PS%202018.jpg" alt="Justify PS 2018" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>The second of three races that comprise the Triple Crown ended in another win for Justify this weekend. Conditions at Pimlico Race Course were strikingly similar to those at Churchill Downs earlier this month, with rains leading up to the race, a muddy track, and the addition of heavy fog that made the 9.5 furlongs that much more exciting.</p> <p>The second of three races that comprise the Triple Crown ended in another win for Justify this weekend. Conditions at Pimlico Race Course were strikingly similar to those at Churchill Downs earlier this month, with rains leading up to the race, a muddy track, and the addition of heavy fog that made the 9.5 furlongs that much more exciting.</p> <p>Competition was fierce, with Good Magic and Justify running neck and neck for most of the race. In the end, Good Magic ended up in fourth after being chased down by Bravazo and Tenfold in the final stretch. Below are the official results for the 143<sup>rd</sup> Preakness Stakes:</p> <table style="height: 451px;" width="579"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 59px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Place</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Horse</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Trainer</span></strong></h1> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <h1><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; font-size: 16px;">Jockey</span></strong></h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Justify</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bob Baffert</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mike Smith</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bravazo</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">D. Wayne Lukas</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Luis Saez</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tenfold</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Steven M. Asmussen</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ricardo Santana Jr.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Good Magic</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Chad&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Brown</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Jose Ortiz</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">5</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lone Sailor</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thomas M. Amoss</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Irad Ortiz Jr.</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Sporting Chance</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">D. Wayne Lukas</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Luis Contreras</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Diamond King</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">John C. Servis</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Javier Castellano</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 59px; text-align: center;"> <p><strong><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 162px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Quip</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Rodolphe Brisset</span></p> </td> <td style="width: 165px;"> <p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Florent Geroux</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Justify is now looking to become a Triple Crown winner on June 9, just the 13<sup>th</sup> in history and not long after Bob Baffert-trained American Pharaoh won the TC for the first time in 37 years in 2015. We wish them the best and will be watching to see history being made yet again.</p> <p>If you missed the race, catch it below!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="hs-responsive-embed hs-responsive-embed-youtube"> <iframe class="hs-responsive-embed-iframe" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/Ji_4dH_FXzw" width="560" height="314" allowfullscreen></iframe> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fjustify-wins-the-2018-preakness-stakes&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Race Horse Hay Horse Nutrition News Tue, 22 May 2018 20:32:19 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-wins-the-2018-preakness-stakes 2018-05-22T20:32:19Z Anderson Hay & Grain Co., Inc. Justify Wins 144th Kentucky Derby https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-wins-144th-kentucky-derby <p>Justify emerged as the winner of an exciting race on Saturday afternoon. The 144<sup>th</sup> Kentucky Derby was the wettest in history, with a 24-hour precipitation of 3.15” and a muddy track to show for it. Steady rain provided just enough unpredictability to cast a doubt on if this year’s favorite would come through victorious, but Bob Baffert-trained Justify proved worthy. Finishing with a time of 2 minutes 4.20 seconds, Justify was able to edge out Good Magic and Audible by 2 ½ lengths.</p> <p>Justify emerged as the winner of an exciting race on Saturday afternoon. The 144<sup>th</sup> Kentucky Derby was the wettest in history, with a 24-hour precipitation of 3.15” and a muddy track to show for it. Steady rain provided just enough unpredictability to cast a doubt on if this year’s favorite would come through victorious, but Bob Baffert-trained Justify proved worthy. Finishing with a time of 2 minutes 4.20 seconds, Justify was able to edge out Good Magic and Audible by 2 ½ lengths.</p> <p>The 3-year-old thoroughbred is the first horse to win the Derby after not starting as a 2-year-old in 136 years. Known as the “Curse of Apollo”, this superstition is one of the longest running in sports history and is traced back to when Apollo won the Kentucky Derby in 1882, beating out favorite Runnymede.</p> <p>Trainer Bob Baffert paid little attention to the superstition though, and earned his fifth Derby win. Congratulations to Justify, Bob Baffert, and jockey Mike E. Smith! Anderson Hay is proud to supply Baffert and Justify with high quality forage products to fuel these historic wins.</p> <p>If you missed the race, check it out below! Want to know more about Anderson Hay’s products? <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/contact-anderson-hay">Contact us online</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2jSWMme12ik" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fjustify-wins-144th-kentucky-derby&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Race Horse Hay Video News Mon, 07 May 2018 19:44:09 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/justify-wins-144th-kentucky-derby 2018-05-07T19:44:09Z Anderson Hay & Grain Co., Inc. Dubai World Cup 2018 https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/dubai-world-cup-2018-winners <p>Horse racing is one of the most popular sports in Dubai, and the <a href="http://www.dubaiworldcup.com/">Dubai World Cup</a> is the one of the premiere events in the United Arab Emirates. Held annually at the Meydan Racecourse since 1996, this race boasts a purse of $10 mil USD and hosts more than 50,000 spectators a year. Horses travel from around the world to compete in this high profile event and competition is fierce for the first place finish.</p> <p>Horse racing is one of the most popular sports in Dubai, and the <a href="http://www.dubaiworldcup.com/">Dubai World Cup</a> is the one of the premiere events in the United Arab Emirates. Held annually at the Meydan Racecourse since 1996, this race boasts a purse of $10 mil USD and hosts more than 50,000 spectators a year. Horses travel from around the world to compete in this high profile event and competition is fierce for the first place finish.</p> <p>On March 31<sup>st</sup>, Thunder Snow was the horse that brought home the top spot. Trained by Saeed bin Suroor with Christophe Soumillion as jockey, <a href="https://www.godolphin.com/">Godolphin</a>-owned Thunder Snow beat heavily favored West Coast by six lengths to take home the $6 mil USD first place prize.</p> <p>West Coast came in second, jockeyed by Javier Castellano, followed by Mubtaahij jockeyed by Victor Espinoza. Both West Coast and Mubtaahij are trained by Bob Baffert in California. Anderson Hay is proud to supply <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay">hay</a> not only to Thunder Snow in Dubai, but to both West Coast and Mubtaahij.</p> <p>Catch the race below!</p> <p><iframe src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/ws6955MGG5g" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fdubai-world-cup-2018-winners&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Race Horse Hay Horse Health News Fri, 13 Apr 2018 22:14:04 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/dubai-world-cup-2018-winners 2018-04-13T22:14:04Z Anderson Hay & Grain Co., Inc. Forage Nutrition 101: Nitrates https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-nitrates <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-nitrates" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/nutrition_series_featured_image-01.png" alt="Forage Nutrition 101: Nitrates" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">Quality forages</a> are vital to the livestock industry, as only the top quality options provide <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-crude-protein">crude protein</a>, <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber">acid detergen/neutral detergent fiber</a>, minerals, and other nutrients essential to animal health. Forage quality depends on a variety of conditions, such as the harvesting process, soil, fertilization, maturity – factors that impact both the physical characteristics and chemical makeup of the final product. Premium forages aren’t developed overnight; they are the result of extensive expertise and years of experience.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">When assessing forage options, one measurement commonly used to measure quality is the percentage</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products">Quality forages</a> are vital to the livestock industry, as only the top quality options provide <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-crude-protein">crude protein</a>, <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber">acid detergen/neutral detergent fiber</a>, minerals, and other nutrients essential to animal health. Forage quality depends on a variety of conditions, such as the harvesting process, soil, fertilization, maturity – factors that impact both the physical characteristics and chemical makeup of the final product. Premium forages aren’t developed overnight; they are the result of extensive expertise and years of experience.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">When assessing forage options, one measurement commonly used to measure quality is the percentage</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">of Nitrates it contains, as too high levels can cause serious health issues for livestock – or even death. This blog&nbsp;includes basic information on this component of various feeds, including details on percentages and why levels are so important.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>What are nitrates in forages?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Nitrates are found naturally in soil and can make their way into forages through the roots of certain plants, known as accumulating plants. They arere also added to man-made fertilizers because of &nbsp;their high solubility and quick biodegradability. The two most common ways of analyzing nitrates levels in forages are:</span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">To report nitrate ion levels as a percentage; OR,</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">To report nitrate nitrogen in parts per million (ppm).</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Nitrates levels present in forages have less to do with the amount that is actually in the soil as they do the environmental conditions in which the forage is grown. The amount of nitrates that build up in forages also depends on the plant species, maturity and which part of the plant they’ve accumulated – i.e., stalk or stem, leaves, roots.;</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>How do nitrates levels vary?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Nitrates levels can reach toxicity in forages any time the nitrogen supply in the soil exceeds the nitrogen needs of the plant. Plants absorb nitrogen from the soil in the form of nitrate, which is later converted to protein. When nitrate is present in the forage and protein synthesis is slow, nitrates will accumulate until the rate of protein synthesis increases.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Nitrates accumulate in the stalk of plants at high levels when certain environmental factors are present, such as:</span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Shading or low light levels;</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Extreme weather, including drought, early frost, hail or cold;</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Improper herbicide application; and</span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 14px;">Disease.</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anything that slows down the rate of plant growth can lead to increased nitrate levels in well-fertilized plants.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Why are nitrates important?</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">The level of nitrates in forages can be deadly for livestock. Nitrates go through a transformation when consumed by livestock, as they are changed first to nitrites and then to ammonia before being expelled in urine. The intermediate byproduct – the nitrites –are the cause of toxicity. At higher levels, nitrite can be absorbed into the bloodstream and interfere with blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to bodily tissues. The animal will die if the oxygen carrying capabilities of blood are reduced. Levels of nitrates in forages may not be an issue if consumed over a few days, but they can be very harmful if the animal feeds over a few hours.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Based on both of the approaches to measuring nitrates levels in forages, here is some guidance on feeding for livestock:</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><img alt="Nitrate_feeding_precautions.png" height="329" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Nitrate_feeding_precautions.png?width=592&amp;height=329&amp;name=Nitrate_feeding_precautions.png" title="Nitrate_feeding_precautions.png" width="592"></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Nitrates levels are just one of many components that impact forage quality;<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-acid-detergent-fiber-neutral-detergent-fiber">Acid or Neutral Detergent Fibers</a>, <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-phosphorus">Phosphorus</a>, and <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nutrition-101-crude-protein">Crude Protein</a> are other details you’ll need to consider when choosing a premium product. &nbsp;They are all covered in our Nutrition series we are blogging; subscribe to our blog to receive notifications when we post new information! &nbsp;</span></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fforage-nutrition-101-nitrates&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Horse Nutrition Export Hay Thu, 19 May 2016 15:30:00 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/forage-nutrition-101-nitrates 2016-05-19T15:30:00Z The North American Monsoon https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/the-north-american-monsoon <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/the-north-american-monsoon" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/Monsoon_clouds.jpg" alt="The North American Monsoon" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p style="text-align: left;">Growers in the southwest United States have become accustomed to the monsoon season, but what exactly is it and what does it mean for&nbsp;<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/products">forage</a>?&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>What is monsoon season?</strong></p> <p>The North American monsoon season is a large weather pattern similar to the monsoon season in Asia, although not as strong. It officially occurs from June 15 – September 30 with most storms occurring in July and August. This particular monsoon system effects northwest Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Utah and Colorado. It brings unpredictable weather patterns, strong winds, and precipitation. It is important to note</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><img alt="Monsoon_clouds.jpg" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Monsoon_clouds.jpg?width=320&amp;name=Monsoon_clouds.jpg" style="width: 320px; margin: 0px 0px 0px 10px; float: right;" title="Monsoon_clouds.jpg" width="320">Growers in the southwest United States have become accustomed to the monsoon season, but what exactly is it and what does it mean for&nbsp;<a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/products">forage</a>?&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>What is monsoon season?</strong></p> <p>The North American monsoon season is a large weather pattern similar to the monsoon season in Asia, although not as strong. It officially occurs from June 15 – September 30 with most storms occurring in July and August. This particular monsoon system effects northwest Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Utah and Colorado. It brings unpredictable weather patterns, strong winds, and precipitation. It is important to note that the word “monsoon” refers to a system not a storm. Many may see a thunderstorm coming and refer to this as a “monsoon” when the most appropriate term would be “storm” (as the result of a monsoon system).</p> <p>Most of the southwestern US sits in heat for a large portion of the year. By the beginning of summer, the sun has warmed and dried the region causing an area of low pressure. Meanwhile, the sun is also heating the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, pulling moisture upward and creating an area of high pressure. As these systems collide the wind direction is changed from its normal westerly flow to southeasterly, bringing the moisture from the Gulf and Pacific to the dry desert. Monsoon season will last until the temperature difference between the land and the sea is reduced.</p> <p>Some areas of North America receive about half of their annual rainfall during the monsoon. Precipitation varies greatly on a daily basis, and even within distances as short as a couple of miles. Patterns consist of bursts (periods of extremely heavy rainfall that are most often short in duration) and breaks (periods of no rainfall). Mountainous areas tend to receive the most rain and can even act as focal areas for thunderstorms as moist air rises and cools to the point of precipitation.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><br><img alt="Moisture sources for North American Monsoon" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Moisture_sources_for_NA_Monsoon-01.png?width=422&amp;name=Moisture_sources_for_NA_Monsoon-01.png" style="width: 422px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" title="Moisture sources for North American Monsoon" width="422"><em>Moisture sources for North American monsoon.</em></p> <p>Threatening weather is a hallmark of this weather pattern, for many reasons. The increased precipitation can cause flash floods and hail, and the wind shift often results in large dust storms called haboobs. The most lethal component of this extreme weather is lightening, which consistently burns hundreds of thousands of acres in the southwest every year. The risk is greatest during June and July, when excessive precipitation has not yet fallen and vegetation is still dry after nine months of heat and wind. It can take several days for fire fighters and monsoon precipitation to extinguish the flames.</p> <p><strong>What does this mean for growers?</strong></p> <p>Monsoon season is officially June 15 – September 30, peaking in the southwest in July and August. These dates are dictated by the <a href="http://www.weather.gov/">National Weather Service</a>&nbsp;(NWS) to make identifying and predicting the season easier for media and residents. &nbsp;By this point in the growing season, many farmers in this area are on their 3<sup>rd</sup> or 4<sup>th</sup> Alfalfa cutting. So what does this change in weather bring?</p> <p>Growers will find themselves with the challenge of choosing the best days to cut and cure their hay. The unpredictable weather can make it difficult to find a good cutting window to allow windrows the adequate drying time without receiving any precipitation. On the other hand, vegetation flourishes during this time as ground water and basins are replenished and less irrigation is needed. &nbsp;</p> <p>To keep up with how our growers are doing in the Southwest, subscribe to our blog and keep an eye out for weekly Harvest updates in <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/news">Anderson News.</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="display: inline !important;">&nbsp;</p> <p>Sources:</p> <p><a href="http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature-articles/southwest-monsoon">http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature-articles/southwest-monsoon</a></p> <p><a href="http://arizonaexperience.org/land/arizonas-monsoon-season">http://arizonaexperience.org/land/arizonas-monsoon-season</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/twc/monsoon/monsoon_NA.php">http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/twc/monsoon/monsoon_NA.php</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fthe-north-american-monsoon&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Quality of Forage Weather Mon, 09 May 2016 20:00:00 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/the-north-american-monsoon 2016-05-09T20:00:00Z 2015 Western United States Hay Acreage Infographic https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/2015-western-united-states-hay-acreage-infographic <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/2015-western-united-states-hay-acreage-infographic" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/images/hay-infographic.jpg" alt="2015 Western United States Hay Acreage Infographic" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>Accounting for about 20% of the national hay area harvested in the United States, the Western US has a climate suited perfectly for the growth of high-quality, nutritious forage. Every day, bales from these states feed animals across the country and around the world. <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay">Hay</a> is shipped from ports along the West Coast, making its way to dairies, farms, race horses, and camels across the world.</p> <p>Accounting for about 20% of the national hay area harvested in the United States, the Western US has a climate suited perfectly for the growth of high-quality, nutritious forage. Every day, bales from these states feed animals across the country and around the world. <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay">Hay</a> is shipped from ports along the West Coast, making its way to dairies, farms, race horses, and camels across the world.</p> <p></p> <p>Where in the West does this actually come from? Not surprisingly, Montana comes in #1 for total hay acreage in the Western US with 2.8 million acres harvested in 2015. Check out the infographic below for a full list of Western US states and the total acreage each contributes to providing the best hay in the world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="2015_US_Hay_Acreage_Infographic_-_v3_2016-01-28.png" height="1481" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hubfs/2015_US_Hay_Acreage_Infographic_-_v3_2016-01-28.png?width=592&amp;height=1481&amp;name=2015_US_Hay_Acreage_Infographic_-_v3_2016-01-28.png" title="2015_US_Hay_Acreage_Infographic_-_v3_2016-01-28.png" width="592"><br><br></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keep an eye out for our upcoming infographic on Western US Hay Production to learn exactly where hay was produced in 2015, and visit <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/products">www.Anderson-Hay.com</a> to see our high-quality forage options that set the industry standard for <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/company-values">excellence</a>.</p> <br> <br> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2F2015-western-united-states-hay-acreage-infographic&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Quality of Forage Race Horse Hay Export Hay Thu, 04 Feb 2016 23:16:17 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/2015-western-united-states-hay-acreage-infographic 2016-02-04T23:16:17Z Nationwide Port Productivity Concerns https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nationwide-port-productivity-concerns <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nationwide-port-productivity-concerns" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/Logistics_infographic-01.jpg" alt="Nationwide Port Productivity Concerns" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>Just about everyone in transportation and import/export is looking for an increase in efficiency, and the ports are usually where we look. There are many opportunities for improvement within the supply chain. As a US Top 40 Exporter, Anderson Hay has about 55 loads a day currently going to port, solely from our headquarters in Ellensburg, WA, one of our three plants. Along with thousands of others in the supply-chain, our everyday operations are directly &nbsp;&nbsp;dependent on how smoothly things go at marine terminals.</p> <p>Just about everyone in transportation and import/export is looking for an increase in efficiency, and the ports are usually where we look. There are many opportunities for improvement within the supply chain. As a US Top 40 Exporter, Anderson Hay has about 55 loads a day currently going to port, solely from our headquarters in Ellensburg, WA, one of our three plants. Along with thousands of others in the supply-chain, our everyday operations are directly &nbsp;&nbsp;dependent on how smoothly things go at marine terminals.</p> <p>Recently, Philip Davies (principal at Davies Transportation Consulting) studied truck calls at Los Angeles-Long Beach and Vancouver ports, and found that the most effective change in increasing efficiency is to reduce the processing time for trucks. According to Davies “a [time] reduction of 50% at the on-dock and off-dock terminals alone would increase load trips per hour by 19%, and a reduction of 25% at all terminals would increase load trips per hour by 13%.” &nbsp;</p> <p>It seems that most of the congestion at terminals occurs as a result of inbound containers. Ports are now moving from storing inbound containers on chassis to stacking them in storage yards. This increases the time spent handling containers, which requires a natural increase in labor for longshore workers and a slower process for shippers and truckers. &nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="Logistics_infographic-01.jpg" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hubfs/Logistics_infographic-01.jpg" title="Logistics_infographic-01.jpg"></p> <p>Export loads do not experience similar wait time; Davies found in his study that export drivers completed transactions in only 25-35 minutes, which is half the time most import loads spend at the terminals (50-60 minutes).</p> <p>Some ports have taken steps to adapt to the increase in congestion, such as mandatory appointment systems and extending gate hours. Longer gate hours result in decreased turn times for drivers. However ports often charge additional fees for this service in an attempt to recoup the added costs of labor.</p> <p>Container lines also have a vested interest in increasing efficiency. Often, import containers can be stored for up to four days at a marine terminal, referred to as free-time, without charge depending on the port’s tariff. After the free-time allotment, a storage charge is levied and often covered by the carrier lines. This leaves little incentive for customers to move containers that are taking up valuable acreage and increasing congestion after their free-time has expired.</p> <p>The Port of Long Beach has proposed a solution to this particular problem: changing the free-time calculation from days to shifts. This would hopefully encourage more evening shifts, allowing customers more time to pick up their cargo. It would also decrease the number of containers in storage yards at the port and limit storage fees. <br> <br> As terminal operating environments become increasingly complex, there is not necessarily one single solution. It is important, however that every part of the supply chain operate together to develop a more efficient managed environment at container ports. What opportunities for improvement do you see at ports?</p> <p>Read the full article here<strong>:&nbsp;</strong><a href="http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/port-los-angeles/study-finds-reducing-truck-waits-best-way-boost-port-productivity_20151118.html">http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/port-los-angeles/study-finds-reducing-truck-waits-best-way-boost-port-productivity_20151118.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/inland-arena-pushed-productivity-enhancer_20151023.html">http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/inland-arena-pushed-productivity-enhancer_20151023.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/long-beach-port-considers-new-way-reduce-free-container-storage-time_20151120.html">http://www.joc.com/port-news/us-ports/long-beach-port-considers-new-way-reduce-free-container-storage-time_20151120.html</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fnationwide-port-productivity-concerns&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Leading US Exporter News Wed, 25 Nov 2015 21:08:41 GMT nikki.pollock@anderson-hay.com (Anderson Hay) https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/nationwide-port-productivity-concerns 2015-11-25T21:08:41Z Grass Clippings Unsafe for Horses, Stick to Pasture and Hay https://www.anderson-hay.com/bid/101528/Grass-Clippings-Unsafe-for-Horses-Stick-to-Pasture-and-Hay <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/bid/101528/Grass-Clippings-Unsafe-for-Horses-Stick-to-Pasture-and-Hay" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-861378584-jpg/images/dont_feed_horses_grass_cuttings.jpg" alt="Grass Clippings Unsafe for Horses, Stick to Pasture and Hay" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><strong>Resist the Urge to Feed Lawn Clippings to Horses</strong></p> <p>Ah…spring! The weather is getting warmer and your lawn is a beautiful, green carpet. At this time of the year, you have to mow the lawn at least once a week, sometimes more frequently, and you generate an immense pile of grass clippings with every cutting. You think – wouldn’t those nice, green, sweet smelling clippings be a wonderful treat for your horse? <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="He eats">He eats</a> grass, so why wouldn’t they be good for him? Therefore, when the lawnmower bag is full, you head down to the barn to spoil your horse with a delicious indulgence.</p> <p>Stop! Before you dump those bags of clippings into a pile at the barn for your horse to eat, consider the dangers that it poses. Grass clippings are the last thing you want to feed to your horse.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <img alt="Don't feed horses grass cuttings" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-861378584-jpg/images/dont_feed_horses_grass_cuttings.jpg" style="float: right; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px;"> <p style="text-align: left;"><strong>Resist the Urge to Feed Lawn Clippings to Horses</strong></p> <p>Ah…spring! The weather is getting warmer and your lawn is a beautiful, green carpet. At this time of the year, you have to mow the lawn at least once a week, sometimes more frequently, and you generate an immense pile of grass clippings with every cutting. You think – wouldn’t those nice, green, sweet smelling clippings be a wonderful treat for your horse? <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="He eats">He eats</a> grass, so why wouldn’t they be good for him? Therefore, when the lawnmower bag is full, you head down to the barn to spoil your horse with a delicious indulgence.</p> <p>Stop! Before you dump those bags of clippings into a pile at the barn for your horse to eat, consider the dangers that it poses. Grass clippings are the last thing you want to feed to your horse.</p> <p>Many lawns can contain things that are toxic to horses. Lawn chemicals, such as herbicides and fertilizers can be noxious to a horse and some chemical residues can persist in the grass long after it has been treated. Furthermore, poisonous weeds may be present in a lawn and your horse can’t sort around them when they are chopped up into small pieces by the lawnmower.</p> <p>Those short clippings that are piled together make it really easy for a horse to grab a big mouthful. He doesn’t really even need to chew it and if he swallows the entire bolus, it can lodge in his esophagus, which can lead to choke. In some cases, the blockage may allow some fluid or food to leak into the trachea and lungs, which may lead to pneumonia. Serious cases of choke can also cause the esophagus to rupture.</p> <p>The short length of the lawn clippings makes it easy for your horse to eat a lot in a short period of time. Those clippings pass quickly to the hindgut where they are swiftly fermented. Rapid build-up of fermentation end products can lead to colic and/or laminitis.</p> <p>In addition, the high moisture content of grass clippings coupled with warm temperatures leads to rapid production of molds and mildews in the pile. Horses that consume grass clippings contaminated with mold may experience colic or diarrhea. Furthermore, grass clippings that accumulate in a pile and decay provide ample substrate for the bacteria, <em>Clostridium botulinum</em> to grow and thrive. These bacteria grow in the plant matter and produce a toxin that causes botulism when ingested. The high moisture content of spring grass may lead to rapid production of the toxin. Symptoms of botulism poisoning in horses depends on the amount of toxin ingested and can range from weakness to sudden death.</p> <p>Resist the urge to feed clippings from your lawn to your horse. While they appear to be a tasty treat, grass clippings may cause your horse to get sick, or worse.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> directly from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> in your email, please subscribe above on the right.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fbid%2F101528%2FGrass-Clippings-Unsafe-for-Horses-Stick-to-Pasture-and-Hay&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Horse Health Horse Nutrition Fri, 23 May 2014 18:11:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/bid/101528/Grass-Clippings-Unsafe-for-Horses-Stick-to-Pasture-and-Hay 2014-05-23T18:11:00Z Nikki Pollock Moving Horses from Hay to Fresh Forage Can Pose Some Risks https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/101250/Moving-Horses-from-Hay-to-Fresh-Forage-Can-Pose-Some-Risks <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/101250/Moving-Horses-from-Hay-to-Fresh-Forage-Can-Pose-Some-Risks" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-743988363-jpg/images/horse_in_pasture.jpg" alt="Moving Horses from Hay to Fresh Forage Can Pose Some Risks" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Is There Danger Lurking for Horses in Lush Spring Pastures?</strong></p> <p>Did you know that those lush, early spring pastures can be dangerous for horses?&nbsp;&nbsp;Over the years, grass breeders have developed cultivars, or types, that rapidly accumulate high levels of sugar, starch, and fructans (together referred to as nonstructural carbohydrates, or NSC). Grasses that have higher NSC are more drought resistant and have faster regrowth after grazing or harvesting. Furthermore, grasses that store more NSC have more calories, stimulate microbial fermentation, and improve nitrogen utilization in the rumens of cattle. Animals prefer forages with higher levels of NSC, which subsequently leads to greater intake and better performance by meat and milk producing animals. While cattle benefit from forages with high NSC, these types of grasses are not necessary good for horses.pastures can be dangerous for horses? Abrupt dietary changes, from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="hay">hay</a> to fresh forage&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Is There Danger Lurking for Horses in Lush Spring Pastures?</strong></p> <p>Did you know that those lush, early spring pastures<img alt="Horse grazing spring pasture" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-743988363-jpg/images/horse_in_pasture.jpg" style="float: right;"> can be dangerous for horses?&nbsp;&nbsp;Over the years, grass breeders have developed cultivars, or types, that rapidly accumulate high levels of sugar, starch, and fructans (together referred to as nonstructural carbohydrates, or NSC). Grasses that have higher NSC are more drought resistant and have faster regrowth after grazing or harvesting. Furthermore, grasses that store more NSC have more calories, stimulate microbial fermentation, and improve nitrogen utilization in the rumens of cattle. Animals prefer forages with higher levels of NSC, which subsequently leads to greater intake and better performance by meat and milk producing animals. While cattle benefit from forages with high NSC, these types of grasses are not necessary good for horses.pastures can be dangerous for horses? Abrupt dietary changes, from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="hay">hay</a> to fresh forage&nbsp;</p> <p>can lead to digestive upset in any horse. It isn’t the grass itself that is dangerous, but rather the amount of fructan, a specific sugar type that is the problem. Fructans are made up of individual fructose sugars that are bound together in long- and short-chain carbohydrates. The bonds that hold the sugars together cannot be broken down in the equine stomach or small intestine. Rather, they pass into the hindgut where they are easily broken down and fermented by microbes into volatile fatty acids and lactic acid. Volatile fatty acids are normal end products of cellulose and fiber fermentation and horses handle them well. In contrast, lactic acid is not well-utilized. Buildup of lactic acid in the hindgut is a common cause of colic and laminitis in horses.</p> <p>Concentrations of NSC in forages are very dependent on growing conditions, plant species, and development stage. Cool-season grasses, such as <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="timothy">timothy</a>, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass, tend to accumulate sugars, starch, and fructan, while warm-season grasses, like Bermuda grass, accumulate only sugars and starch. Concentrations of NSC vary over time and are generally lowest in the morning and highest in the afternoon.</p> <p>Environmental temperature, which varies by season, dramatically affects the NSC levels in pasture plants. The effect of season on NSC is illustrated in the figure that shows average concentrations of NSC in 24 grasses grown in a high mountain valley in Colorado, where sunny but cool growing conditions optimize NSC accumulation. When temperatures are sunny and warm during the day, but drop to near freezing at night (such as during the spring and fall months), cool-season grasses accumulate NSC. In addition, very mature cool-season grasses that are typically found in fall months, which are high in fiber, can accumulate high levels of NSC provided there is still some green tissue left on the plant. During the summer when temperatures are hot, plants rapidly metabolize sugars and levels of NSC decrease in cool-season grasses.</p> <p><img alt="Grass Hay Carbohydrate Values by Season" class="alignCenter" height="355" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-743988348-png/images/effect_of_growing_season_on_nonstructural_carbohydrates_in_pasture_grasses.png?width=604&amp;height=355&amp;name=effect_of_growing_season_on_nonstructural_carbohydrates_in_pasture_grasses.png" style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" width="604"></p> <p>Horses that are prone to laminitis are especially sensitive to pastures with grasses that are high in NSC. Management of these horses and an understanding of the environment effects on NSC in pasture grasses can help minimize recurrence of this painful and debilitating condition. Horses prone to laminitis should not be allowed to graze in late spring. Pasture growth at this time, when nights are still cool and grass is forming seed heads, coincides with maximum NSC concentrations. Pasture turnout should also be monitored during summer drought as this condition may facilitate NSC accumulation in cool-season grasses. Access to pasture should also be limited when fall rains begin as the combination of cool temperatures and a flush in grass growth may increase NSC and trigger laminitis.</p> <p>Some other things to consider that may reduce risk of laminitis in horses include turnout only in the morning when NSC levels are lowest, allowing grazing only in shaded areas, and controlling high sugar weeds. Sugar production is dependent on light intensity; therefore, grasses in the shade accumulate less sugar. Many broadleaf weeds, such as dandelion and thistle, are palatable to horses and may contain high levels of NSC.</p> <p>The level of NSC in pasture forages, especially cool-season grasses, are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Since levels of NSC are associated with risk of laminitis in horses, understanding how NSC levels change with conditions is important. Other things to consider before turning horses out on pasture, especially in the spring include: 1) Initially restrict grazing time and slowly increase turnout time to allow horses to adapt to the new feed source; 2) Feed hay before turnout to curb appetites; 3) Feed hay when grazing, especially if pasture grasses are limited to avoid intake of weeds; and, 4) Use a grazing muzzle to limit intake if a laminitis-prone horse must be turned out on pasture.</p> <p>If you would like to receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, you can subscribe above on the right.</p> <p><strong>Reference</strong></p> <p>Watts, K. 2010. Pasture management and equine laminitis. Vet. Clin. Equine. 26:361-369.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F101250%2FMoving-Horses-from-Hay-to-Fresh-Forage-Can-Pose-Some-Risks&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Horse Health Horse Nutrition Thu, 08 May 2014 00:07:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/101250/Moving-Horses-from-Hay-to-Fresh-Forage-Can-Pose-Some-Risks 2014-05-08T00:07:00Z Nikki Pollock Does Vitamin E Help Keep Aging Horses Healthy? https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100710/Does-Vitamin-E-Help-Keep-Aging-Horses-Healthy <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100710/Does-Vitamin-E-Help-Keep-Aging-Horses-Healthy" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-643280610-jpg/images/old_horse_grazing.jpg" alt="Does Vitamin E Help Keep Aging Horses Healthy?" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Vitamin E Supplementation May Improve Immune Response in Older Horses</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="Horses">Horses</a> are living longer than ever these days. Roughly 15% of horses in the United States are over the age of 20. Because immune function tends to decrease with advanced age, these horses are more susceptible to disease and infection. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that plays an important role in ensuring normal function of immune cells. Research suggests that vitamin E supplementation may enhance immune function in aged humans, including antibody production after vaccination (1).</p> <p>There is not a lot of research available regarding the effects of vitamin E supplementation on equine immune function. Therefore, a group of researchers from the University of Rhode Island and Virginia Tech University designed a study to examine immune function in horses that received a vitamin E supplement.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Vitamin E Supplementation May Improve Immune Response in Older Horses</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="Horses"><img alt="Old horse grazing" class="alignLeft" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-643280610-jpg/images/old_horse_grazing.jpg" style="float: left;">Horses</a> are living longer than ever these days. Roughly 15% of horses in the United States are over the age of 20. Because immune function tends to decrease with advanced age, these horses are more susceptible to disease and infection. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that plays an important role in ensuring normal function of immune cells. Research suggests that vitamin E supplementation may enhance immune function in aged humans, including antibody production after vaccination (1).</p> <p>There is not a lot of research available regarding the effects of vitamin E supplementation on equine immune function. Therefore, a group of researchers from the University of Rhode Island and Virginia Tech University designed a study to examine immune function in horses that received a vitamin E supplement.</p> <p>For the study, the group used <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-cows/" title="horses">horses</a> (geldings and mares) of various breeds that ranged in age from 12 to 26 years. Horses in the vitamin E supplemented group were fed 15 times the daily recommended amount of vitamin E once per day. Horses in the control group were fed a placebo, which was an equivalent weight of wheat middlings. All horses were fed a mixed grass hay. Horses were injected at week 7 and 14 of the study with a recombinant West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccine to determine if vitamin E improved antibody production to WNV.</p> <p>Blood was collected from the horses at the beginning of the trial and at two-week intervals throughout the study and used to determine blood levels of vitamin E. Levels of immunoglobulins, or antibodies, in blood were also measured. Immune cells were isolated from blood on weeks 6 and 16 of the study to determine if vitamin E enhanced their ability to kill bacteria.</p> <p>Results showed that supplementation of vitamin E at 15 times the recommended level increased blood levels of vitamin E. It also enhanced several components of the immune system of older horses. Immune cells from horses fed vitamin E showed increased ability to kill bacteria, which is important at warding off potential bacterial infections. Certain types of immunoglobulins increased after supplementation with vitamin E. Interestingly, neutralizing antibodies specific to WNV were not affected by vitamin E supplementation. Certainly, additional research into modulatory effects of vitamin E on the immune system of horses is needed. Contact your equine nutritional consultant if you are considering adding supplemental vitamin E to your horse’s diet.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, please subscribe above on the right.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>(1)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Meydani, S.N., S.N. Han, and D. Wu. 2005. Vitamin E and immune response in the aged: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Immunol. Rev. 205:269-284.</p> <p>(2)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Petersson, K.H., D.B. Burr, M. Gomez-Chiarri, and C.S. Petersson-Wolfe. 2010. The influence of vitamin E on immune function and response to vaccination in older horses. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2950-2958.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F100710%2FDoes-Vitamin-E-Help-Keep-Aging-Horses-Healthy&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Horse Health Horse Nutrition Fri, 04 Apr 2014 16:30:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100710/Does-Vitamin-E-Help-Keep-Aging-Horses-Healthy 2014-04-04T16:30:00Z Nikki Pollock Steamed Hay for Horses https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100419/Steamed-Hay-for-Horses <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100419/Steamed-Hay-for-Horses" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-600009228-jpg/images/horse_eating_alfalfa1.jpg" alt="Steamed Hay for Horses" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Does Steaming Make Hay Healthier and Safer for Horses?</strong></p> <p>Soaking hay in water for 30 minutes or less is a good way to reduce airborne particles such as dust and mold, making it an effective management strategy for horses with respiratory problems. Soaking also reduces levels of nonstructural carbohydrates in hay, which is essential for horses with metabolic issues. However, soaking also leaches other essential nutrients from hay.</p> <p>Steaming hay before feeding is commonly practiced in Europe and is becoming more popular in the U.S. But, not much is known about the effects of steaming on the nutritional quality of forage and if it effectively reduces dust and mold in hay. Fortunately, a study to examine the effects of steaming on hay quality was recently conducted by a team of researchers based in the Department of Animal Science at the University of Minnesota.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Does Steaming Make Hay Healthier and Safer for Horses?</strong></p> <p>Soaking hay in water for 30 minutes or less is a good way to reduce airborne particles such as dust and mold, making it an effective management strategy for horses with respiratory problems. Soaking also reduces levels of nonstructural carbohydrates in hay, which is essential for horses with metabolic issues. However, soaking also leaches other essential nutrients from hay.</p> <p><img alt="Horse eating Alfalfa" class="alignLeft" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-600009228-jpg/images/horse_eating_alfalfa1.jpg" style="float: left;">Steaming hay before feeding is commonly practiced in Europe and is becoming more popular in the U.S. But, not much is known about the effects of steaming on the nutritional quality of forage and if it effectively reduces dust and mold in hay. Fortunately, a study to examine the effects of steaming on hay quality was recently conducted by a team of researchers based in the Department of Animal Science at the University of Minnesota.</p> <p>The team obtained two different lots of <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/" title="alfalfa">alfalfa</a>-orchard grass hay that were harvested at different moisture levels. The hays had similar nutritive values, but differed in mold concentrations. One lot contained low levels of mold (LM) and the other was moderately moldy (MM). Each day one bale each of LM and MM hay was steamed for 90 minutes. Samples were taken to assess the nutrient composition, number of dust particles, and mold content of the hays before and after steaming.</p> <p>Six horses were used in a 10-day crossover design. Three horses were randomly assigned to each <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="hay">hay</a> type (LM or MM) on the first day of the experiment. On the sixth day, hay types were switched. Each day of the trial, horses were simultaneously offered two flakes of steamed and two flakes of unsteamed hay from the same hay type (LM or MM). They were housed in stalls and allowed to eat for two hours. After the test period, the horses were removed from their stalls and hay consumption during the two-hour period was determined by weighing the remaining hay.</p> <p>The unsteamed MM hay had higher amounts of suspended particles (dust) and mold than the LM hay. Unsurprisingly, steaming increased the moisture content of LM and MM hays (33% and 29%, respectively). Levels of crude protein, fiber, starch, and calcium were not affected by steaming. In comparison, phosphorus and mold count were reduced in both hay types after steaming. Levels of water soluble carbohydrates, ethanol soluble carbohydrates, and dust particles were decreased by steaming in MM hay, but not in LM hay. &nbsp;</p> <p>Steaming LM hay increased dry matter intake during the two-hour test period while intakes of the MM hay were not affected by steaming. Steaming kills viable mold, but does not physically remove it. If mold has an unpleasant taste, killing it will not improve palatability, which would explain why steaming did not increase intakes of MM hay.</p> <p>Treating hay with steam reduced mold concentrations in hay. However, intakes were improved only when hay initially contained low levels of mold. Steaming hay may be a useful management strategy for horses that are picky eaters, have poor teeth, are malnourished, or are recovering from surgery. However, hay steamers are still quite expensive; therefore, soaking might be a more cost effective method to reduce dust, mold, and nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in hays for horses with respiratory and metabolic conditions.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, subscribe above on the right.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Reference</strong></p> <p>Earing, J.E., M.R. Hathaway, C.C. Sheaffer, B.P. Hetchler, L.D. Jacobson, J.C. Paulson, and K.L. Martinson. 2013. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5813-5820.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F100419%2FSteamed-Hay-for-Horses&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Hay for Horses Quality of Forage Race Horse Hay Horse Health Horse Nutrition Fri, 21 Mar 2014 23:41:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/100419/Steamed-Hay-for-Horses 2014-03-21T23:41:00Z Nikki Pollock Composting for your Horse's Health https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99850/Composting-for-your-Horse-s-Health <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99850/Composting-for-your-Horse-s-Health" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-523840852-jpg/images/wheel_barrow.jpg" alt="Composting for your Horse's Health" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Key Factors for a Successful Compost Pile</strong></p> <p>Composting horse manure is beneficial to your horse’s health. A properly managed compost pile will reach temperatures that are high enough to kill fly larvae, which reduces the fly population in the area, and also destroys weed seeds. The high temperature in the compost pile will also wipe out parasites and pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria that could cause diseases in horses.</p> <p>There are several things to consider in creating and managing a successful compost pile.</p> <p><strong>Pile size.</strong> A compost pile that is about seven square feet at the base and at least three feet high will result in the best heating. Heat is generated when organic material decomposes. However, if the pile is too short, the heat will quickly dissipate and will not reach temperatures that are high enough to kill parasites, bacteria, viruses, and weed seeds.</p> <p><strong>Airflow. </strong>It is important to keep air in the compost pile to minimize odors and achieve high temperatures. Proper airflow will also speed up the decomposition process. Turning the pile at regular intervals (especially during the first few weeks) speeds up decomposition. Turning ensures that air reaches all areas of the pile and thoroughly mixes particles.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Key Factors for a Successful Compost Pile</strong></p> <p>Composting horse manure is beneficial to <img alt="wheel barrow" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-523840852-jpg/images/wheel_barrow.jpg" style="float: right;">your horse’s health. A properly managed compost pile will reach temperatures that are high enough to kill fly larvae, which reduces the fly population in the area, and also destroys weed seeds. The high temperature in the compost pile will also wipe out parasites and pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria that could cause diseases in horses.</p> <p>There are several things to consider in creating and managing a successful compost pile.</p> <p><strong>Pile size.</strong> A compost pile that is about seven square feet at the base and at least three feet high will result in the best heating. Heat is generated when organic material decomposes. However, if the pile is too short, the heat will quickly dissipate and will not reach temperatures that are high enough to kill parasites, bacteria, viruses, and weed seeds.</p> <p><strong>Airflow. </strong>It is important to keep air in the compost pile to minimize odors and achieve high temperatures. Proper airflow will also speed up the decomposition process. Turning the pile at regular intervals (especially during the first few weeks) speeds up decomposition. Turning ensures that air reaches all areas of the pile and thoroughly mixes particles.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Temperature.</strong> Make sure to monitor the temperature of the compost pile. Compost thermometers (which are long-stemmed) can usually be found at home and garden stores. During the early stages of decomposition, the pile temperature may range from 50 – 110<sup>o</sup>F. As decomposition progresses, the temperature increases to between 110<sup>o</sup>F and 160<sup>o</sup>F and should remain there at least several days. Following the temperature peak, the pile temperature will gradually decrease to the ambient air temperature over a period of several weeks. While it is important that the temperature in the pile reaches at least 160<sup>o</sup>F, temperatures above this level are detrimental to the organisms that decompose the material in the pile. If the pile temperature goes above 160<sup>o</sup>F, reduce the size of the pile. Manure will decompose in approximately three to six months in the winter and in one to two months during the summer.</p> <p><strong>Moisture.</strong> The amount of water in a compost pile will also affect decomposition. Excess water will fill the air spaces and restrict airflow in the compost pile. Compost piles that contain too much moisture may develop bad odors and will decompose very slowly. Conversely, too little moisture restricts growth of organisms that decompose material, thereby preventing the pile from heating up. A handful of material grabbed from the center of the compost pile will help you determine if its moisture content is adequate. If the material drips without squeezing – it is too wet. If the material is dry and crumbles from your hand after squeezing – it is too dry. If the material retains its shape after squeezing and does not release water, but your hand is damp – it is just right. Maintain adequate moisture level by covering the pile or adding the water as conditions change. Turning the pile at more frequent intervals is another method to dry out a compost pile if it is too wet.</p> <p><strong>Location.</strong> A level area with good drainage that is on fairly high ground is the best place to put a compost pile. Put the pile in a place that is convenient to stall and paddock areas and is also within reach of a hose. Be sure to have an adequate buffer zone between your compost pile and streams, wetlands, and residences.</p> <p><strong>Ingredients.</strong> The organisms that decompose organic material require carbon for energy and nitrogen for growth. Ideally, the ratio of carbon:nitrogen should be between 25:1 and 30:1. <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="Plant materials">Plant materials</a> provide carbon while manure, grass clippings, and <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="hay">hay</a> provide nitrogen. Horse manure by itself contains the ideal ratio of carbon:nitrogen. However, you will end up with too much carbon in your compost pile if you add too much <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/straw/" title="bedding">bedding</a>. In this case, the decomposition process will be quite slow and material in the pile may not completely compost. You can offset the high level of bedding in the pile by adding materials that contain high levels of nitrogen, such as grass clippings or chicken manure.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email please subscribe above on the right.</p> <p>We'd appreciate you taking a minute to fill out our blog survey by clicking on the link below.</p> <p><strong>Reference</strong></p> <p>Paige, Jessica. A Guide to Composting Horse Manure. <a href="http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/compost/horsecompost.htm">http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/compost/horsecompost.htm</a></p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F99850%2FComposting-for-your-Horse-s-Health&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Blue Grass Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Horse Health Thu, 13 Feb 2014 19:55:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99850/Composting-for-your-Horse-s-Health 2014-02-13T19:55:00Z Nikki Pollock It's not cold everywhere! Tips for Dairy Cow Health in Hot Climates https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99482/It-s-not-cold-everywhere-Tips-for-Dairy-Cow-Health-in-Hot-Climates <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99482/It-s-not-cold-everywhere-Tips-for-Dairy-Cow-Health-in-Hot-Climates" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-477220566-jpg/images/cows_in_the_shade.jpg" alt="It's not cold everywhere! Tips for Dairy Cow Health in Hot Climates" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Heat Stress Decreases Dairy Cow Milk Production</strong></p> <p>While it is currently winter in the northern hemisphere, <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-cows/" title="dairy cows">dairy cows</a> in some other parts of the world are experiencing environmental conditions that include high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Dairy farmers know that their cows are sensitive to heat stress on hot summer days. When the climate is subtropical, or when temperatures are hot and humid for extended periods of time, dairy cows may become chronically heat stressed.</p> <p>The strain caused by chronic heat stress in lactating dairy cows can be detrimental to milk production. &nbsp;Dairy producers in the United States lose more than $5 billion each year from heat stressed dairy cows that have depressed milk production and decreased performance (1). </p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Heat Stress Decreases Dairy Cow Milk Production</strong></p> <p>While it is currently winter in the northern hemisphere, <img alt="Cows in the shade" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-477220566-jpg/images/cows_in_the_shade.jpg" style="float: right;"><a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-cows/" title="dairy cows">dairy cows</a> in some other parts of the world are experiencing environmental conditions that include high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Dairy farmers know that their cows are sensitive to heat stress on hot summer days. When the climate is subtropical, or when temperatures are hot and humid for extended periods of time, dairy cows may become chronically heat stressed.</p> <p>The strain caused by chronic heat stress in lactating dairy cows can be detrimental to milk production. &nbsp;Dairy producers in the United States lose more than $5 billion each year from heat stressed dairy cows that have depressed milk production and decreased performance (1). Unfortunately, dairy cows are more sensitive to heat stress than other animals because their metabolic processes generate a lot of heat. In addition, physical activity generates additional heat from muscles and other body tissues.</p> <p>As temperatures exceed 95<sup>o</sup>F, energy requirements for maintenance of general body functions increase by 20%, often at the expense of milk production (2). Body heat production associated with milk production increases because metabolic processes, feed intake, and digestive requirements increase to meet conditions for high milk yield. Therefore, high producing dairy cows are especially prone to heat stress.</p> <p>Adding to the problem is the fact that dairy cows also accumulate heat from radiant energy. Metabolic heat production and heat accumulation coupled with compromised cooling capability due to environmental conditions result in increased body temperature, which can be measured by rectal temperature, and increased respiration rates. Furthermore, heat stressed cows eat less as ambient temperature increases, and as a consequence, milk production decreases as temperature increases (see Figure; adapted from reference 3).<img alt="Effect of ambient temperature on lactating dairy cows" class="alignCenter" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-480038735-png/images/effect_of_ambient_temperature_on_lactating_dairy_cows.png" style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"></p> <p>Dairy producers can help offset the negative effects of heat stress in dairy cattle by providing shade. A good source of shade is probably the easiest and cheapest method to decrease heat stress. In fact, total heat load may be reduced between 30 and 50% with a well-designed shade area (2). Many dairy farms in the southeastern United States utilize free stalls and loose housing barns with high, steeply pitched roofs, which minimize heat transfer from solar radiation and allow for cross ventilation (2).</p> <p>Shade is rather effective in helping decrease heat stress; however, it does nothing to decrease actual air temperature or relative humidity. Therefore, the use of fans and methods to wet the cow aid in evaporative cooling. Studies have shown that milk production is improved in cows when they are treated with an evaporative cooling method during hot and humid conditions.</p> <p>Another way to combat heat stress is to use genetic tools to select for heat-tolerant dairy cattle. Nutritional management strategies can be also be designed to minimize the effects of heat stress in lactating dairy cows. Please check our blog in the upcoming weeks for tips on how to feed heat stressed lactating cows and also to learn about what heat stress does to dry dairy cows.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, subscribe above on the right.&nbsp;</p> <p>We'd love your feedback! Please take our <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog-survey/" title="Blog Survey">Blog Survey</a>.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>(1)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/heat_stress_in_dairy_cattle">http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/heat_stress_in_dairy_cattle</a></p> <p>(2)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; West, J.W. 2003. Effects of heat stress on production in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2131-2144.</p> <p>(3)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSA-3040.pdf">http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSA-3040.pdf</a></p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F99482%2FIt-s-not-cold-everywhere-Tips-for-Dairy-Cow-Health-in-Hot-Climates&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Dairy Cow Milk Production Sat, 25 Jan 2014 00:42:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99482/It-s-not-cold-everywhere-Tips-for-Dairy-Cow-Health-in-Hot-Climates 2014-01-25T00:42:00Z Nikki Pollock Along with quality forage, hoof care important in winter https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99133/Along-with-quality-forage-hoof-care-important-in-winter <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99133/Along-with-quality-forage-hoof-care-important-in-winter" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-442568125-jpg/images/winter_hoof_care.jpg" alt="Along with quality forage, hoof care important in winter" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;">As outside temperatures plummet and precipitation becomes increasingly frozen, horse owners may opt to stay inside more often than not. Horses are well cared for – they get fed plenty of <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="high quality hay">high quality hay</a>, have fresh and unfrozen water, get regular turnout, and have access to shelter.</span></p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;">As outside temperatures plummet and<img alt="winter hoof care" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-442568125-jpg/images/winter_hoof_care.jpg" style="float: right;"> precipitation becomes increasingly frozen, horse owners may opt to stay inside more often than not. Horses are well cared for – they get fed plenty of <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="high quality hay">high quality hay</a>, have fresh and unfrozen water, get regular turnout, and have access to shelter.</span></p> <p>While horses may not be ridden much during the winter months, they still need regular hoof care. In fact, horse hooves may require more attention in the winter than they do during the summer. Hooves grow differently in winter, and mud, snow, and ice present additional challenges.</p> <p>Hoof growth slows in winter, mostly in response to how much the horse moves around or is exercised. Generally, horses graze less and spend more time standing in their stalls or paddocks <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="eating hay">eating hay</a> in winter months. Movement frequency appears to be directly related to blood circulation in the hooves. As movement declines, so does blood circulation, which leads to slower hoof growth. If a horse is healthy and has well-balanced hooves, he may need less frequent visits from the farrier. However, slower hoof growth also slows resolution of some hoof problems such as cracks or other hoof defects. Hoof quality can be improved by feeding a supplement that contains biotin; however, since it takes nearly a year to grow out a completely new hoof, biotin supplementation should begin well in advance of winter months.</p> <p>Unfortunately, winter conditions present additional problems when it comes to equine hoof health. Frozen ground is very unyielding and can sometimes be quite uneven. Contact of a hoof with this type of ground can result in sole bruises, which may lead to lameness. Horses that have sole bruises may benefit from shoes with or without pads. Consult with your farrier to determine what will work best with your horse.</p> <p>Your horse may also be more susceptible to hoof abscesses during the winter months, especially when there are alternating times of wet and dry weather. When the weather abruptly alternates between wet and dry conditions, the hoof wall expands and contracts, which allows bacteria to enter small holes or cracks in the hoof. When bacteria multiply inside the hoof, painful abscesses will form. Proper hoof care that leads to adequate sole thickness is important to obtain before winter sets in.</p> <p>Thrush is an infection of the frog and sulci of the equine hoof caused by multiple organisms that may be characterized by a foul smelling discharge. Chronic thrush infections can lead to degeneration of the horn of the hoof. Thrush can be a problem in locations where wet conditions persist for long periods during the winter without periods below freezing. When thrush becomes a problem, the affected areas of the hoof should be removed, the organism should be treated with a product designed for combatting thrush, and the horse’s environment should be changed to something that is drier and is routinely cleaned of feces and urine.</p> <p>Finally, snow balls can be a real problem for shod horses. Wet snow gets lightly packed in the shod hoof and melts slightly when it contacts the sole. It then refreezes when it touches the cold, metal shoe. The ice balls that form can lead to tripping, slipping, soreness, and injury. Home remedies such as spraying the hoof with cooking spray or petroleum jelly may work for a short period of time, but are generally ineffective. Convex plastic or rubber inserts that go between the horse’s hoof and shoe are a more effective method to prevent hoof snow balls. Discuss options with your farrier.</p> <p>Caring for your horse during the winter may be challenging. However, your horse is fairly well equipped to manage winter weather conditions. Regular hoof care and <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="proper nutrition">proper nutrition</a> should get your horse through the winter and have him ready to ride in the spring.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, please subscribe above on the right.</p> <p><b>Reference</b></p> <a href="http://www.equisearch.com/horses_care/caring-for-your-horses-hooves-in-winter/">http://www.equisearch.com/horses_care/caring-for-your-horses-hooves-in-winter/</a> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F99133%2FAlong-with-quality-forage-hoof-care-important-in-winter&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Timothy Hay Quality of Forage Timothy Horse Health Horse Nutrition Mon, 06 Jan 2014 21:51:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/99133/Along-with-quality-forage-hoof-care-important-in-winter 2014-01-06T21:51:00Z Nikki Pollock Forage Recommendations for Young Dairy Calves https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98924/Forage-Recommendations-for-Young-Dairy-Calves <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98924/Forage-Recommendations-for-Young-Dairy-Calves" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-417065739-jpg/images/calf_eating_hay.jpg" alt="Forage Recommendations for Young Dairy Calves" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;">Growth performance of young dairy calves can be improved if a source of chopped <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="hay">hay</a> is included in their diets. Unfortunately, because of conflicting results from different research studies, the jury is still out as far as solid recommendations about when forage should be introduced in the young dairy calf diet and how much they should be fed.</span></p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="text-align: left;">Growth performance of young dairy calves <img alt="Calf eating hay" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-417065739-jpg/images/calf_eating_hay.jpg" style="float: right;">can be improved if a source of chopped <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="hay">hay</a> is included in their diets. Unfortunately, because of conflicting results from different research studies, the jury is still out as far as solid recommendations about when forage should be introduced in the young dairy calf diet and how much they should be fed.</span></p> <p>What we do know is that dairy calves should be transitioned from a liquid milk replacer diet to a pelleted calf starter diet before weaning. Many farmers in the dairy industry do not start feeding forage to their calves until they are at least 2 months old. &nbsp;However, we also know that forages stimulate rumen development. While the starter diets that dairy calves are fed also aid rumen development, it is only sensible that calves younger than 2 months of age should have access to some type of forage. Early exposure to forage will help prime the rumen for a diet higher in forage.</p> <p>Contrary to what might be logical, the first forage that calves consume should be relatively low in nutritive quality, such as <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/straw/" title="straw">straw</a> or low quality <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-cows/" title="grass hay">grass hay</a>. Feeding a high quality forage might trump consumption of the starter diet, which would result in too much gut fill. A calf with a full rumen will not be able to consume enough of their starter diet, which is crucial to meet energy and protein requirements for growth.</p> <p>With these facts in mind, calves can be introduced to forage between 2 and 3 weeks of age. The forage should be high in fiber, but low in nutritive value, and it should be chopped so the particle size is about 1 inch in length. Ideally, low quality forage should be offered ad libitum. If nutritive quality is low, calves will most likely limit their intake to 3 – 5% of the diet dry matter. If the forage is higher in quality, provide it at no more than 5% of the dry matter to avoid possible gut fill issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;Interestingly, a recent study suggested that feeding forage to dairy calves during the preweaning period (from 9 days to approximately 7 weeks of age) of the study improved intakes of the pelleted starter and of the complete diet and increased average daily gain of calves after weaning. The improvement in dry matter intake in calves fed hay is probably directly related to pH in the rumen. These calves had higher rumen pH when fed forage, which indicates that rumen health was improved and also supports greater dry matter intake.</p> <p>Adding chopped hay to young dairy calf diets improved rumen health and supports greater dry matter intake and growth rate. In addition, early exposure to forage may help offset loss in gain that calves may experience during weaning.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, subscribe above on the right.</p> <p><b>References</b></p> <p><a href="http://www.dairyherd.com/dairy-resources/calf-heifer/Expert-says-to-start-calves-on-low-quality-forage-213838441.html">http://www.dairyherd.com/dairy-resources/calf-heifer/Expert-says-to-start-calves-on-low-quality-forage-213838441.html</a></p> <p>Terré, M., E. Pedrais, A. Dalmau, and A. Bach. 2013. What do preweaned and weaned calves need in the diet: A high fiber content or a forage source? J. Dairy Sci. 9:5217-5225.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F98924%2FForage-Recommendations-for-Young-Dairy-Calves&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Timothy Hay Timothy Dairy Cow Milk Production Thu, 19 Dec 2013 20:30:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98924/Forage-Recommendations-for-Young-Dairy-Calves 2013-12-19T20:30:00Z Nikki Pollock Horses Need More Hay in Cold Weather https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98800/Horses-Need-More-Hay-in-Cold-Weather <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98800/Horses-Need-More-Hay-in-Cold-Weather" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-412874347-jpg/images/horses_in_the_snow.jpg" alt="Horses Need More Hay in Cold Weather" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Horses Require Additional Energy in Winter</strong></p> <p>Cold temperatures, rain, wind, and snow….no doubt about it…winter is here. Are you prepared to <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="feed your horse">feed your horse</a> to keep him warm? Don’t just throw a blanket on your horse when the weather turns nasty. Increasing your horse’s daily calorie (or energy) intake is more important than a blanket at maintaining core body temperature.</p> <p>Mature horses that are at maintenance (i.e., healthy and not growing, working, gestating, or lactating) should be fed a <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="good quality forage">good quality forage</a> at the rate of at least 1.5 to 2% of their body weight each day. In other words, daily forage intake for a 1000 pound horse should be between 15 and 20 pounds.</p> </div> <div class="hs-migrated-cms-post"> <p><strong>Horses Require Additional Energy in Winter</strong></p> <p>Cold temperatures, rain, wind, and snow….<img alt="horses in the snow" class="alignRight" src="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hs-fs/hub/92967/file-412874347-jpg/images/horses_in_the_snow.jpg" style="float: right;">no doubt about it…winter is here. Are you prepared to <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/hay-and-straw-products/" title="feed your horse">feed your horse</a> to keep him warm? Don’t just throw a blanket on your horse when the weather turns nasty. Increasing your horse’s daily calorie (or energy) intake is more important than a blanket at maintaining core body temperature.</p> <p>Mature horses that are at maintenance (i.e., healthy and not growing, working, gestating, or lactating) should be fed a <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/timothy-hay/timothy-hay-for-horses/" title="good quality forage">good quality forage</a> at the rate of at least 1.5 to 2% of their body weight each day. In other words, daily forage intake for a 1000 pound horse should be between 15 and 20 pounds.</p> <p>Energy intake must increase to maintain body temperature and body weight as temperatures creep closer to a horse’s lower critical temperature (LCT), or the temperature below which the horse will start to use more energy to maintain core body warmth. A horse’s LCT is dependent on temperatures to which it is accustomed and thus varies regionally (a horse living in Florida will have a higher LCT than a horse living in Minnesota). A horse’s LCT also differs by individual and is dependent on hair coat length and thickness, body condition or fat cover, age (older horses may be less tolerant of cold temperatures), and size of the horse (smaller horses have greater surface area relative to body weight and lose heat more rapidly than larger horses). If a horse is shivering, chances are good that his LCT has been reached.</p> <p>In general, for every 1 degree Fahrenheit drop below the LCT, a horse will require 1% more digestible energy to maintain internal body temperature (1).</p> <p>Let’s say that a horse has a LCT of 30<sup>o</sup>F. The forecast is for snow and a low temperature of 20<sup>o</sup>F. However, winds are also in the forecast, so with the windchill it will actually feel like 10<sup>o</sup>F outside. Make sure to always use the actual temperature when adjusting your horse’s energy intake.</p> <p>So, 30<sup>o</sup>F – 10<sup>o</sup>F = 20, which means that digestible energy should increase 20% in these conditions.</p> <p>The average 1000 pound horse requires 15 megacalories (Mcal) of digestible energy per day to fuel essential body functions and maintain body temperature (2). If conditions require that digestible energy be increased by 20%, then the horse should be fed an additional 3 Mcal of energy (15 Mcal X 20% = 3 Mcal) each day.</p> <p>The best way to warm your horse from the inside is to increase the <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/alfalfa-hay/alfalfa-hay-for-horses/" title="hay">hay</a> content in his diet. &nbsp;Some believe that increasing grain will keep a horse warmer. In actuality, more heat is produced as forage is fermented by microbes in the horse’s digestive system.</p> <p>Knowing this, how much additional hay will you have to feed your horse when the actual outdoor temperature is 20 degrees below his LCT? Above, we determined that he will need an additional 3 Mcal of digestible energy. If you were already feeding 20 pounds of hay to your 1000 pound horse (20 pounds = 2% of body weight) and the energy content of most legume and grass hays averages around 1 Mcal/pound, then you will need to add another 3 pounds of hay to your horse’s diet each day under these conditions.</p> <p>At times, especially when temperatures are very cold, a horse may not be physically able to eat enough hay to meet energy requirements for conditions. Adding a fat source to the diet may be beneficial when this occurs, or when a horse is losing body condition despite increased forage intake. A winter coat or blanket may hide body fat cover, so be sure to physically check your horse’s body condition on at least a weekly basis to minimize weight loss.</p> <p>Feeding during winter months can be challenging. However, paying attention to weather conditions and increasing energy intake when temperatures dip below your horse’s LCT will help to keep your horse warm and comfortable.</p> <p>To receive this <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/" title="blog">blog</a> from <a href="https://www.anderson-hay.com/" title="Anderson Hay">Anderson Hay</a> directly in your email, please subscribe above on the right.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>(1)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ralston, S. and C. Williams. 2011. Winter Feeding For Horses. Publication number FS1143. Rutgers NJAES Cooperative Extension.</p> <p>(2)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Horses. Sixth revised edition. The National Academies, Washington, D.C.</p> </div> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=92967&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.anderson-hay.com%2Fblog%2Fbid%2F98800%2FHorses-Need-More-Hay-in-Cold-Weather&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.anderson-hay.com%252Fblog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Alfalfa Hay Hay for Horses Timothy Hay Timothy Horse Health Horse Nutrition Sat, 14 Dec 2013 01:01:00 GMT https://www.anderson-hay.com/blog/bid/98800/Horses-Need-More-Hay-in-Cold-Weather 2013-12-14T01:01:00Z Nikki Pollock